Nov 222008
 

This is “Appendix A.3: The Qur’anic Verses on Moses in the Chapter of al-Qasas (the Stories) (28.2-46)” of the book The Mystery of Israel in Ancient Egypt: The Exodus in the Qur’an, the Old Testament, Archaeological Finds, and Historical Sources

Those are verses of the manifest Book (28.2). We narrate to you [O Muhammad!] parts of the story of Moses and Pharaoh in truth, for people who believe (28.3). Pharaoh exalted himself in the earth and made its people castes, oppressing one group of them, slaying their sons and sparing their women; he was one of the corrupters (28.4). We desired to show favor to those who were oppressed in the earth, make them leaders, make them the inheritors (28.5), establish them in the earth, and show Pharaoh, Haman, and their soldiers from them that which they feared (28.6). We inspired Moses’ mother: “Suckle him, and when you fear for him, cast him into the river and do not fear or grieve; We shall bring him back to you and make him one of the messengers” (28.7). Then the people of Pharaoh picked him up [from the river], to become for them an enemy and a sorrow; Pharaoh, Haman, and their soldiers were sinful (28.8). The wife of Pharaoh said: “[He will be] a delight for the eye for me and you. Do not kill him. He may be useful for us, or we may take him as a son,” while they were unaware [of what was going to happen] (28.9). The heart of Moses’ mother became void; she would have revealed it (the secret) had We not strengthened her heart to be one of the believers (28.10). She said to his sister: “Trace him,” so she observed him from afar while they [with whom Moses was] were unaware (28.11). We had forbidden foster mothers for him before. She (his sister) said: “Shall I show you a household who could rear him for you and take good care of him” (28.12)? So We returned him to his mother so that she be comforted and not grieve, and to know that Allah’s promise is true, but most of them (people) do not know (28.13). When he attained his full strength and settled, We gave him Wisdom and Knowledge; thus do We reward the good doers (28.14). He entered the city at a time of unawareness by its people, and he found there two men fighting — one of his own people and the other of his enemies. He who was of his people asked him for help against him who was of his enemies. So Moses struck and killed him. He said: “This is of Satan’s doing; he is a manifest misleading enemy” (28.15). He said: “My Lord! I have wronged myself, so forgive me.” Then He forgave him; He is the Forgiving, the Merciful (28.16). He said: “My Lord! Forasmuch as You have favored me, I will nevermore be a supporter of the guilty” (28.17). And morning found him in the city, fearing, vigilant, when he who had appealed to him the day before cried out to him for help; Moses said to him: “You are indeed a manifest lurer” (28.18). When he was to assault the man who was an enemy to them both, he said: “O Moses! Is it your intention to kill me as you killed a person yesterday? Your intention is none other than to become a powerful tyrant in the land, and not to be one of the reformers” (28.19). A man came from the uttermost part of the city, running; he said: “O Moses! The chiefs are plotting against you to kill you, therefore leave [the city]; I am of those who give you good advice” (28.20). So he left it, fearing, vigilant; he said: “My Lord! Save me from the wrongdoing people” (28.21). When he turned his face toward Midian, he said: “May my Lord guide me to the right way” (28.22). When he came to the water of Midian he found at it a group of people watering [their flocks], and he found apart from them two women keeping back [their flocks]; he said: “What is the matter with you?” They said: “We cannot water [our flocks] till the shepherds return from the water, and our father is a very old man” (28.23). So he watered [their flocks] for them; then he turned aside into the shade, and said: “My Lord! I stand in need of whatever good You would send down to me” (28.24). Then one of them (the two women) came to him walking shyly; she said: “My father invites you to reward you for having watered [the flocks] for us.” When he came to him (their father) and told him his story he said: “fear no more; you have escaped from the wrongdoing people” (28.25). One of the two women said: “O my father! Hire him, for the best [man] that you can hire is one who is strong and trustworthy” (28.26). He said: “I would like to marry you to one of my two daughters and in return you hire yourself to me for eight years, and it is up to you if would make it ten, for I do not want to make it hard for you; Allah willing, you will find me one of the righteous” (28.27). He said: “This is [a contract] between me and you; whichever of the two terms I fulfill, there shall be no wrongdoing on my part, and Allah is a witness on what we say” (28.28). When Moses fulfilled the term and left in the night with his family, he perceived a fire at the side of the mountain. He said to his family: “Stay here; I have perceived a fire that I might bring you tidings from or a firebrand that you might warm yourselves” (28.29). When he came to it (the fire), he was called from the right side of the valley in the blessed spot at the tree: “O Moses! I am Allah, the Lord of all peoples” (28.30). And [that]: “Throw down your staff.” When he saw it moving like a snake he fled without tracing his steps. “O Moses! Draw near and do not fear for you are one of the secure ones (28.31). Enter your hand to your bosom and it will come forth white without harm; and do not show fear. These shall be two proofs from your Lord to Pharaoh and his chiefs; they are a rebellious people” (28.32). He said: “My Lord! I have killed a person from them and I fear that they will kill me (28.33). My brother Aaron is more eloquent than me, so make him a messenger with me — a helper to confirm me; I fear that they will accuse me of telling lies” (28.34). He said: “We will strengthen you with your brother, and We will give you both authority so that they shall not be able to reach you [for harm] on account of Our signs. You both and those who follow you will be the victorious” (28.35). When Moses brought to them Our clear signs, they said: “This is nothing other than invented magic, and we have never heard of this among our forefathers” (28.36). Moses said: “My Lord knows best him who has come with guidance from Him and whose will be the best end; the wrongdoers will not be successful” (28.37). Pharaoh said: “O chiefs! I know no god for you other than me, so kindle for me [a fire], O Haman, to bake the mud, and set up for me a lofty tower that I may look at Moses’ god; I believe he is one of the liars” (28.38). He and his soldiers behaved arrogantly in the earth without right, and they thought that they would not be brought back to Us (28.39). Therefore We seized him and his soldiers, and flung them into the sea. So see how the end of the wrongdoers was (28.40). We made them leaders who invite to the Fire, and on the Day of Resurrection they will not be helped (28.41). We followed them up with a curse in this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they will be among the hated (28.42). We gave Moses the Book after We had destroyed the generations of old, as clear testimonies for the people, guidance, and mercy, that they may remember (28.43). And you [O Muhammad!] were not on the western side [of the mountain] when We handed to Moses the matter, and you were not one of the witnesses (28.44). But We brought forth generations, and their lives dragged on for them. You were not dwelling with the people of Midian reciting to them Our verses, but We have sent [you as] a Messenger (28.45). You were not on the side of the mountain when We called [Moses], but this [knowledge that We have revealed to you] is a mercy from your Lord so that you warn a people to whom no warner before you came, that they may give heed (28.46). 

 

          

 Translation by Louay Fatoohi and Shetha Al-Dargazelli 2008

Nov 222008
 

This is “Appendix A.2: The Qur’anic Verses on Moses in the Chapter of TaHa (20.9-97)” of the book The Mystery of Israel in Ancient Egypt: The Exodus in the Qur’an, the Old Testament, Archaeological Finds, and Historical Sources

Has the story of Moses come to you [O Muhammad!] (20.9)? When he saw a fire he said to his family: “Stay here, for I have perceived a fire, that I may bring to you therefrom a brand or find a guidance [to the road] at the fire” (20.10). When he reached it, he was called: “O Moses! (20.11). It is Me, your Lord, so take off your sandals; you are in the sacred valley Tuwa (20.12). I have chosen you, so listen to what is revealed (20.13). I am Allah; there is no god save Me. Therefore worship Me and keep up prayer for My remembrance (20.14). The Hour [of Judgment] is coming; I keep it almost hidden, so that every soul will be rewarded according to its deeds (20.15). Let not the person who does not believe in it and follows his own passion turn you away from it so that you perish (20.16). What is that in your right hand, O Moses” (20.17)? He said: “This is my staff; I recline on it, I beat down with it tree leaves for my sheep, and I use it for other things” (20.18). He said: “Throw it down, O Moses!” (20.19). So he threw it down; and behold! it became a crawling serpent (20.20). He said: “Seize it and fear not. We will restore it to its former state (20.21). Draw your hand to your side, and it will come out white without harm, as another sign (20.22). To show you of Our great signs (20.23). Go to Pharaoh, for he has transgressed” (20.24). He said: “O my Lord! Expand my breast (20.25), ease my task for me (20.26), and loosen the knot of my tongue (20.27) so that they may understand what I say (20.28). Appoint for me a vizier from my family (20.29): Aaron, my brother (20.30). Strengthen my back with him (20.31) and let him share my task (20.32). So that we shall glorify You so much (20.33) and remember You so much (20.34). You have been caring to us” (20.35). He said: “You have been granted your request, O Moses! (20.36). We have thus conferred favor on you again (20.37). [The first was] when We revealed to your mother that which is revealed (20.38), saying: ‘Put him in a coffin, then throw him in the river. The river shall throw him onshore; there shall take him up one who is an enemy to Me and an enemy to him.’ And I threw over you love from Me, and that you should be brought up according to My will (20.39). When your sister came walking and said: ‘Shall I direct you to one who will take custody of him?’ So We brought you back to your mother, that her eye might be cooled and that she should not grieve. You killed a soul, then We delivered you from the grief, and We tried you with a severe test. Then you stayed for years with the people of Midian, then you came [here] as ordained, O Moses! (20.40). I have prepared you for Myself (20.41). Go you and your brother with My signs and do not slacken in remembering Me (20.42). Go both to Pharaoh; he has transgressed all bounds (20.43). Speak to him gentle words that he may remember or fear” (20.44). They said: “O our Lord! We fear that he may hasten to do evil to us or that he may play the tyrant” (20.45). He said: “Do not fear; I am with you, hearing and seeing (20.46). So go you both to him and say: ‘We are two messengers of your Lord; therefore send the Children of Israel with us and do not torment them; we have brought to you a sign from your Lord; peace be upon him who follows right guidance (20.47). It has been revealed to us that the torture will come upon him who rejects and turns back’” (20.48). He (Pharaoh) said: “So who is your Lord, O Moses” (20.49)? He said: “Our Lord is He Who created everything, then guided it [to its course]” (20.50). He said: “Then what about the past generations” (20.51)? He said: “The knowledge of them is with my Lord, in a book; my Lord neither errs nor forgets” (20.52). [It is He] who made the earth for you an expanse and made for you in it paths, and sent down from the sky water with which We have brought forth pairs of diverse species of vegetation (20.53). Eat and pasture your cattle; there are signs in this for people of intellect (20.54). From it We created you, into it We shall return you, and from it We will bring you forth a second time (20.55). We showed him all Our signs, but he rejected and refused (20.56). He said: “Have you come to us to drive us out of our land by your magic, O Moses (20.57)? We too shall produce to you magic like it. Set an appointment between us and you, which neither we nor you shall break, in a place where both shall have even chances” (20.58). He said: “Your appointment shall be the day of decoration, and let the people be gathered together in the early afternoon” (20.59). Pharaoh went and made his arrangement, then came [to the agreed place] (20.60). Moses said to them (the magicians): “Woe to you! Do not invent lies about Allah, lest He destroy you by a punishment, and he who invents lies is doomed to fail” (20.61). So they disputed with one another about their affair and kept the discourse secret (20.62). They said: “These are two magicians who wish to drive you out of your land by their magic and to take away your ideal tradition (20.63). Therefore concert your plan, then come as one. He shall prosper this day who gains the upper hand” (20.64). They said: “O Moses! Either you throw down [your staff] or we will be the first to throw down” (20.65). He said: “No, you throw down”; then lo! their cords and staffs looked to him, because of their magic, as if they were moving (20.66). So Moses felt inside fear (20.67). We said: “Do not fear; you have the upper hand (20.68). Throw down what is in your right hand, and it shall devour what they have worked; that which they have made is a magician’s work, and the magician shall not be successful wherever he may go” (20.69). So the magicians were thrown down in prostration; they said: “We believe in the Lord of Aaron and Moses” (20.70). He said: “You have believed in him before I give you permission? He must be your master who taught you magic. I shall cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will crucify you on the trunks of palm trees. You shall know who of us can give the more severe and lasting punishment” (20.71). They said: “We shall not prefer you to what has come to us of manifest signs and to He Who made us. Decide whatever you like to do; you can only decide about this world’s life (20.72). We have believed in our Lord that He may forgive us our sins and the magic that you compelled us to perform, and Allah is better and more lasting” (20.73). Whoever comes to his Lord as guilty he shall have hell where he shall not die or live (20.74). Whoever comes to Him as a believer who has done righteous deeds, for such are the high states (20.75). The gardens of Eden underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. This is the reward of he who purified himself (20.76). We revealed to Moses: “Take away My servants by night, then strike for them a dry path in the sea. Do not be afraid of being overtaken or have any fear” (20.77). Pharaoh then followed them with his soldiers, so there came upon them of the sea that which came upon them? (20.78). Pharaoh led his people astray and he did not guide [them] aright (20.79). O Children of Israel! We have rescued you from your enemy, appointed a meeting for you on the right side of the mountain, and sent down on you the manna and the quails (20.80), [saying]: “Eat of the good things We have given you, but do not transgress in them, otherwise My wrath would fall on you. Whoever My wrath falls on he would perish (20.81). I am forgiving to the person who repents, believes, does good works, and is guided” (20.82). [We said]: “What have made you rush away from your people, O Moses” (20.83)? He said: “They are hard on my footsteps, but I have rushed to you, My Lord, that You might be pleased” (20.84). He said: “We have tempted your people after you and the Samiri has misled them” (20.85). Moses went back angry and sad to his people and said: “O my people! Has your Lord not promised you a good promise? Has the time been too long for you, or did you want wrath from your Lord to fall on you so you broke my appointment” (20.86)? They said: “We did not break your appointment of our volition, but we were made to carry loads of people’s ornaments, and we threw them, and so did the Samiri” (20.87). He (the Samiri) produced for them a calf — a body that lowed, and said: “This is your god and Moses’ god,” and he forgot (20.88). Could they not see that it did not return any speech and could not help or harm them (20.89)? Aaron had told them before: “O my people! You have been tempted by it and your Lord is Allah, so follow me and obey my commands” (20.90). They said: “We will not cease our devotion to it until Moses comes back to us” (20.91). He (Moses) said: “O Aaron! What prevented you, when you saw that they have gone astray (20.92), from following me? Have you disobeyed my command” (20.93)? He said: “O son of my mother! Do not seize me by the beard or head. I feared that you may say ‘you have divided the Children of Israel and have not observed my word’” (20.94). He (Moses) said: “What is the matter with you, O Samiri” (20.95)? He said: “I saw what they did not see, so I grasped a handful from the messenger’s track and cast it; so did my soul suggest to me” (20.96). He said: “Go then, you are doomed in this life to say ‘do not touch me,’ and you will have an appointment that you will not miss. Look to your god which you remained devoted to, we shall burn it and scatter its ashes into the sea” (20.97). 

 

          

 Translation by Louay Fatoohi and Shetha Al-Dargazelli 2008

Nov 222008
 

This is “Appendix A.1: The Qur’anic Verses on Moses in the Chapter of al-A‘raf” of the book The Mystery of Israel in Ancient Egypt: The Exodus in the Qur’an, the Old Testament, Archaeological Finds, and Historical Sources

Then we sent after them (the messengers) Moses with Our signs to Pharaoh and his chiefs, but they disbelieved in them; so see what the end of the corrupters was (7.103). Moses said: “O Pharaoh! I am a messenger from the Lord of all peoples (7.104). It is a duty on me to say nothing about Allah but the truth; I have come to you with clear proof from your Lord, therefore send with me the Children of Israel” (7.105). He said: “If you have come with a sign, then produce it, if you are one of the truthful” (7.106). So he threw his staff down, and it became a manifest serpent (7.107). And he took his hand out and lo! it was white to the beholders (7.108). The chiefs of Pharaoh’s people said: “This is an accomplished magician (7.109) who would like to drive you out of your land; what is your advice” (7.110)? They said: “Let him and his brother wait, and send to the cities summoners (7.111) to bring to you every accomplished magician” (7.112). The magicians came to Pharaoh and said: “We will have a reward if we are the victorious” (7.113). He said: “Yes, and you will be considered with those who are brought close [to me]” (7.114). They said: “O Moses! Either you throw down [your staff] or we will be the first to throw down” (7.115). He said: “You throw [first]”. So when they threw, they deceived peoples’ eyes, frightened them, and they produced a mighty feat of magic (7.116). We revealed to Moses: “Throw your staff”; then lo! it devoured what they faked (7.117). So the truth was established, and what they did became null (7.118). Thus they were vanquished there, and they turned abased (7.119). So the magicians were thrown down in prostration (7.120). They said: “We believe in the Lord of all peoples (7.121), the Lord of Moses and Aaron” (7.122). Pharaoh Said: “You have believed in Him before I give you permission? This is a plot that you have devised in the city to drive its people out of it, but you shall know (7.123). I will cut off your hands and legs on opposite sides, and then I will crucify you all” (7.124). They said: “We shall return to our Lord (7.125). You take revenge on us only because we have believed in the signs of our Lord when they came to us. Our Lord! Pour out on us patience and cause us to die as Muslims” (7.126). The chiefs of Pharaoh’s people said: “Do you leave Moses and his people to cause corruption in the land and forsake you and your gods?” He said: “We will kill their sons but spare their women, and surely we will overpower them” (7.127). Moses said to his people: “Ask help from Allah and be patient; surely the land is Allah’s; He gives it for inheritance to whom He wills of His servants. The [best] end is for the pious” (7.128). They said: “We were harmed before you came to us and we have been harmed since then also.” He said: “May your Lord destroy your enemy and make you inheritors in the land so He sees how you act” (7.129). We tested Pharaoh’s people with droughts and shortage of crops that they may heed (7.130). When good befalls them they would say: “This is due to us,” and when evil afflicts them, they would attribute it to the ill fortune of Moses and those with him; surely their ill fortune is only from Allah, but most of them do not know (7.131). They said: “Whatever sign you may bring to bewitch us, we will not believe you” (7.132). We sent on them the flood, the locusts, the lice, the frogs, and the blood as clear signs; but they behaved arrogantly and were guilty (7.133). When the plague hit them, they said: “O Moses! Pray to your Lord for us, by whatever covenant He has with you, that if you remove the plague from us we will believe you and we will send away with you the Children of Israel” (7.134). But when We removed the plague from them till a term that they were to reach, they broke the promise (7.135). Therefore We took vengeance on them and drowned them in the sea because they denied Our signs and were heedless of them (7.136). We made the people who used to be oppressed to inherit the eastern and western parts of the land that We have blessed. The good word of your Lord was fulfilled for the Children of Israel because of their patience, and We destroyed what Pharaoh and his people wrought and what they built (7.137). We made the Children of Israel cross the sea. They came upon a people who worshipped idols they have created. They said: “Moses, create for us a god as they have gods.” He said: “You are ignorant people (7.138). What they are engaged in shall be destroyed and what they are doing is in vain” (7.139). He said: “What, shall I seek for you a god other than Allah when He has preferred you above all peoples” (7.140)? [Remember, O Children of Israel!] when we rescued you from Pharaoh’s people who subjected you to the worse torment, killing your sons and sparing your women. There was a great trial from your Lord in this (7.141). We appointed for Moses thirty nights and then completed them with another ten, so the appointed time of his Lord was completed to forty nights. Moses said to his brother Aaron: “Take my place among my people, act rightly, and do not follow the path of the corrupting ones” (7.142). When Moses came to our appointment and was spoken to by his Lord he said: “My Lord, enable me to see You.” He said: “You shall not see Me, but look at the mountain; if it remains steady, you shall see Me.” When his Lord manifested Himself to the mountain He turned it into dust, and Moses fell down in a swoon. When he regained consciousness he said: “Glory be to You! I repent to You, and I am the first of the believers” (7.143). He said: “O Moses! I have chosen you over people for My messages and words, so take what I have given you and be among the thankful” (7.144). We wrote for him on the Tablets an admonition concerning everything and a detailing of everything. [We said to him:] “Take them firmly and command your people to observe their most excellent teachings. I will show you the abode of the ungodly (7.145). I will turn away from My signs those who unjustly behave with arrogance in the earth so if they see any sign they do not believe it, if they see the path of righteousness they do not take it for a path, and if they see the path of transgression they take it for a path. This is so because they have rejected Our signs and have been heedless of them (7.146). The works of those who rejected Our signs and the encounter of the hereafter will be in vain. Shall they be rewarded other than for what they have done” (7.147)? The people of Moses took to themselves [as a god] after him a lowing corporeal calf made of their ornaments. Did they not see that it did not speak to them and did not guide them in the path? They took it and were wrongdoers (7.148). When they realized what they have done and saw that they have sinned they said: “If our Lord does not show mercy to us and forgive us we will be among the losers” (7.149). When Moses returned to his people angry and grieved he said: “Evil is what you have done after me. Would you hasten your Lord’s matter?” He threw down the Tablets and seized his brother by the head, dragging him. He said: “O son of my mother! The people weakened me and almost killed me. Do not make my enemies gloat over me and do not consider me with the wrongdoing people” (7.150). He said: “My Lord! Forgive me and my brother and admit us into Your mercy; You are the most merciful of the merciful” (7.151). Those who took the calf [as a god] shall have wrath from their Lord and humiliation in the life of this world, and so do We reward the forgers (7.152). As for those who commit evil things then repent after that and believe, Your Lord will be to them, after that, forgiving, merciful (7.153). When Moses’ anger calmed down, he took the Tablets, in the inscription of which there are guidance and mercy for those who fear their Lord (7.154). Moses chose from his people seventy for our appointment. When the earthquake overtook them he said: “My Lord! Had you willed, you could have killed them and me before. Would You kill us for what the fools among us have done? This is not but Your trial with which You send astray whom You will and guide whom You will. You are our guardian, so forgive us and show mercy to us, and You are the best of forgivers (7.155). Write down for us good in this world and in the hereafter. We have repented to You.” He said: “I will strike with My torment whom I will, and My mercy embraces everything, so I shall write it down for those who are pious, give alms, and believe in Our signs” (7.156).
 
From Moses’ people there is a nation who guide by the truth and measure with it (7.159). We divided them into twelve tribes — nations. We inspired Moses when his people asked him for drink: “Strike the rock with your staff,” so twelve springs burst forth. Every people knew their drinking place. We overshadowed them with the clouds and sent down on them the manna and the quails, [saying]: “Eat of the good things We have given you.” They did not wrong Us but they were wronging themselves (7.160). When it was said to them: “Live in this town and eat from wherever you like. Say ‘hittatun’ and enter the gate prostrating so that We forgive your sins and give increase to the good-doers” (7.161). The wrongdoers among them then changed what had been said to them with another saying, so We sent down on them a punishment from heaven because of their wrongdoing (7.162). Ask them about the town on the sea when they transgressed during the Sabbath, as their fish would come to them on the day when they observe the Sabbath, appearing openly, and on the day they do not observe the Sabbath they would not come. So We tested them because of their rebellion (7.163). When a group from them said: “Why do you admonish a people whom Allah will destroy or punish severely?” They said: “For our own excuse with your Lord, and that they may become pious to Allah” (7.164). When they forgot what they had been reminded of we saved those who forbade evil and we overtook those who did wrong with a severe torment because of their rebellion (7.165). But when they arrogantly persisted in that which they were forbidden We said to them: “Be despised apes” (7.166). 

 

          

Translation by Louay Fatoohi and Shetha Al-Dargazelli 2008

Dec 082007
 

Adapted from: The Mystery Of The Historical Jesus: The Messiah in the Qur’an, the Bible, and Historical Sources

It has been claimed by some that the Qur’an does not confirm explicitly the virginal conception of Jesus. Geoffrey Parrinder states that while the Qur’an makes it clear that the conception involved divine intervention, it does not say whether it was natural or not. He also points out that in the past, commentators considered Jesus to have been born without a father, but that some modern Muslim writers deny, on scientific and historical grounds, that the Qur’an teaches the virginal conception (Parrinder, 1995:70-74).

This is probably one of the most obvious misreadings of a Qur’anic text. The Qur’an can hardly be any clearer in stating that Mary conceived Jesus without having a relation with a man. This is clear in the story of annunciation, which we have already studied; the story of the birth of Jesus (§10.4); and some other verses. This is a list of explicit and implicit confirmations in the Qur’an that Mary did not have a sexual relationship and that her conception was caused miraculously:
 
1) After hearing the good news about Jesus, Mary replied to Gabriel: “How can I have a son when no man has touched me, neither have I been unchaste?” (19.20), and “How can I have a child when no human being has touched me?” (3.47). Gabriel did not reply with something such as “yes, but you will get married,” but he rather responded with a statement emphasizing that the conception was going to happen miraculously: “Thus Your Lord has said: ‘It is easy for Me. And so that We may make of him a sign for people and a mercy from Us, and it is a matter that has been ordained’” (19.21), and, “Thus Allah creates what He wills. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it ‘Be!’ and it is” (3.47).
 
2) These are two verses that refer to Mary guarding her private parts, emphasizing that she was made to conceive miraculously while a virgin: “And [Allah set forth an example] Mary, daughter of ‘Imran, who guarded her private parts, then We breathed therein of Our spirit. And she believed in the words of her Lord and His Book, and was one of the obedient” (66.12), and, “And she who guarded her chastity, so We breathed into her of Our spirit and made her and her son a sign for the peoples” (21.91). The Qur’an keeps stressing Mary’s chastity to make it clear that the conception of this unmarried woman did not involve a sexual relationship.
 
3) Gabriel’s words to Mary that he was sent to bestow on her a pure son mean that he was directly involved in causing the conception of Jesus. This does not mean that Gabriel had a relationship with Mary, because in his reply to her question about how she could get pregnant without having a sexual relationship with a man he still maintained that the pregnancy was going to happen through a miracle. In a subtle way, Gabriel’s presence in that room caused Mary’s ovum to be fertilized. In another verse, Mary’s conception is also described as happening by the breathing of God’s Spirit into Mary, confirming Gabriel’s involvement and the non-sexual nature of his role: “And she who guarded her chastity, so We breathed into her of Our spirit and made her and her son a sign for the peoples” (21.91).
 
4) God stresses in another verse that He “made the son of Mary and his mother a sign” (23.50). While Jesus being a “sign” for people may be understood in terms of the many miracles he performed from his birth, calling Mary also a “sign,” which is a term associated with miracles in such a context, can only denote her virginal conception of Jesus. There is nothing else in Mary’s story to make her a sign for people. The miracle of having food brought to her in the sanctuary was probably witnessed by Zechariah only, as she was living in isolation. This conclusion is also confirmed by the significant observation that the mention of Mary being a sign is made in the context of calling her with her son a sign.
 
We may also note that the word “sign” is used in the singular, i.e. the speech is not about two signs but one, so it must be about the virginal conception. Additionally, verses 21.91 and 23.50 talk about making Mary and her son themselves a sign, which suggests a miracle that happens to them as opposed to miracles that they perform. Probably even Jesus’ ability to perform miracles was related to his paranormal conception.
 
5) Mary’s words during the pangs of birth, “I wish I had died before this and had become someone totally forgotten” (19.23) — which reflect distress, despair, a deep sense of shame, and utmost apprehension — indicate that the childbirth was not going to be seen favorably by people, because they would not recognize the legitimacy of the child.
 
6) When Mary went back to her people with baby Jesus they said to her: “O Mary! You have come up with a grave thing. O sister of Aaron! Your father was not a bad man, and your mother was not an unchaste woman” (19.27-28). The accusation means that she was known not to have been married.
 
7) When baby Jesus spoke to defend his mother against her people’ accusation, he did not say that he was the legitimate son of Mary and her husband. He spoke instead about his status as a prophet and showed that he was indeed a miraculous boy: “I am Allah’s servant. He has given me the Book and has appointed me a prophet. He has made me blessed wherever I may be. He has enjoined upon me prayer and almsgiving so long as I remain alive. And [He has made me] kind to my mother, and has not made me arrogant or wretched” (19.30-32). He is clearly telling people to believe in his miraculous origin on the basis of his miraculous nature.
 
8) In his words above, Jesus states that God made him kind to his mother, but he does not mention his father, because he did not have one.
 
9) The Qur’an calls Jesus “son of Mary” 23 times — 13 times as “Jesus son of Mary,” 5 times as “the Messiah son of Mary,” 3 times as “the Messiah Jesus son of Mary,” and 2 times with no other name or title. Jesus is also referred to once as “her son,” i.e. Mary’s son (21.91). The title “son of Mary” is clearly intended to emphasize the fact that Jesus had no father. It cannot mean that Jesus had an unknown father, because it is a title that God Himself used for Jesus, not simply one used by people who did not know Jesus’ father. God is described as omniscient in the Qur’an, so it cannot be claimed that this title implies that Jesus’ father was unknown.
 
10) The Qur’an identifies people after their fathers, so its identification of Jesus after his mother is a unique case. People in general are referred to as “the sons of Adam” (e.g. 7.26, 17.70), the Israelites are called “the Children of Israel” (e.g. 5.72, 20.80), Adam’s two sons are called “the sons of Adam” (5.27), and Mary herself is called “the daughter of ‘Imran” (66.12). Note that Mary’s father died before her birth (p. 49), but she is still called after him. Even if Jesus’ father was no more around after his birth, he would have still been called after his father, had he had one.
 
I do not think these arguments leave any room to doubt that the Qur’an emphasizes that Mary was virgin when she conceived Jesus and that this conception was not through a sexual relationship with a man. It was a miraculous, virginal conception.
 
We discussed in the previous section the insinuation that started at least as early as the 2nd century that Jesus was the fruit of an illicit relationship between Mary and someone other than Joseph. We also saw that this defamatory allegation was used by opponents of Christianity, including Jews. The Qur’an also mentions the Jewish accusation to Mary of unchastity. This occurs in the context of criticizing Jews for misbehaviors, including breaking their covenant and killing prophets:
 

And because of their disbelief and of their speaking against Mary a tremendous calumny. (4.156)

The Qur’an stresses that Mary was virgin when she conceived Jesus miraculously and strongly criticizes those who accused her of unchastity. There is no mention in the Qur’an of Mary’s getting married or having other children.
 

          

Copyright © 2007 Louay Fatoohi
All Rights Reserved

Sep 242006
 
This article is from the second edition of Jihad in the Qur’an: The Truth from the Source. The book is now in its third edition.

 
As mentioned earlier, Muslims were given the permission to resort to armed jihad in al-Madīna in the second year after the immigration of the Prophet to that city. Any mention of jihad in verses that were revealed in Mecca must, therefore, refer to peaceful jihad. This means that peaceful jihad existed long before armed jihad. In fact, it was present since the early days of Islam, as we will see later on.
 
This is one of the Meccan verses that mention jihad:
 

Had it been Our will, We could have sent a warner to every town (25.51). So do not [O Muhammad!] obey the disbelievers, and jahidhum (do jihad against them), with it [the Qur’an], a mighty jihadan (jihad) (25.52).

Allah’s reference in verse 25.51 to sending Messengers to warn of the Day of Resurrection indicates that doing jihad using the Qur’an in verse 25.52 means preaching its teachings. This is described as jihad because it involves a struggle against the disbelievers who would resist, often violently rather than peacefully, the new religion. It also involves personal struggle on the part of the Prophet who would have to force himself to accept the suffering that this duty puts him through.

Verse 29.6 is another Meccan verse that refers to jihad:
 

Whoever hopes to meet Allah, the term appointed by Allah will surely come; and He is the Hearing, the Knowing (29.5). And whoever jahada (does jihad), he yujahidu (does jihad) only for the benefit of his own soul. Surely, Allah is in no need for anything from the people (29.6). And [as for] those who believe and do righteous deeds, We shall certainly remit from them their bad deeds, and We shall certainly reward them according to the best of their past deeds (29.7).

Both verses that surround verse 29.6 talk about the righteous people, indicating that jihad in verse 29.6 refers to behavior of those people. In other words, jihad is proper behavior in the way to Allah.

The term jihad in the Meccan verses 29.69 and 16.110 also refers specifically to peaceful jihad:

And who does greater wrong than he who forges lies against Allah or denies the truth when it has come to him? Is hell not the [fitting] abode for the disbelievers? (29.68). And [as for] those who jahadu (do jihad) for Us, We shall certainly guide them to Our ways; and Allah is surely with the doers of good (29.69).

Those (the disbelievers) are they on whose hearts, hearing, and eyes Allah has set a seal, and those are the heedless ones (16.108). No doubt that in the hereafter they will be the losers (16.109). Then surely your Lord [O Muhammad!], with respect to those who immigrated after they were persecuted, then jahadu (did jihad), and were patient, surely your Lord after that is Forgiving, Merciful (16.110).

 It is, thus, obvious that jihad is not only about fighting in the cause of Allah. In fact, peaceful jihad is by far the most common form of jihad in the life of the Muslim. Before the revelation of the verse that granted the early Muslims permission to armed jihad, they were involved in peaceful jihad only. For about fourteen years peaceful jihad was the only form of jihad in the life of the early Muslims. 

          

 Copyright © 2004 Louay Fatoohi
All Rights Reserved

Apr 012004
 

First published in Arabic in Al-Manhal Magazine, 1999, vol. 61, no. 560, pp 26-29.

The combined facts that the Qur’an was revealed by Allah and that it is the last divine Book mean that it must be a unique Book. The divine origin of this Book has differentiated it from any other book, and made it a Book that no one can emulate: 

Or do they [the disbelievers] say: “He [Muhammad] has forged it?”. Say [O Muhammad!]: “Then bring a sura (chapter) like this and invite whom you can besides Allah, if you are truthful [in your claim] (10.38).

The Qur’an cannot be emulated by any human being or jinn. In fact, even if all humans and jinn got together to create a qur’an, they would fail: 

Say [O Muhammad!]: “If the human beings and the jinn get together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they could not bring the like of it, even if they backed up each other with help and support” (17.88).

The fact that the Qur’an is the last of Allah’s Books has made it a Book whose miracles will continue to unfold until the Day of Resurrection, and has distinguished it even from previous divine Books.

Among the miraculous attributes of this unique Book is that there is a meaning and wisdom behind each sura, verse, and word in it. This is elucidated in this verse: 

Alif; lam; ra’; This is a Book whose verses have been perfected, then made plain, min ladun1 (from the ladun of) One who is Wise, All-aware (11.1).

This description applies also to every letter in the Qur’an, each of which Allah has purposefully chosen. The proof on this comes from the Qur’an itself which contains verses each consisting of letters only. Only Allah knows the full meaning of these letters. For instance, suras 2 and 3 both start with a verse that consists of the letters “alif, lam, mim; sura 7 starts with the verse “alif, lam, mim, sad“; and sura 19 starts with the verse “kaf, ha’, ya’, ‘ayn, sad“.

These facts about the Qur’an teach us that we must treat the Qur’an with reverence, and study it with complete belief that Allah has embedded wisdom in every part of it.

After this short introduction, let’s start our attempt to study the Qur’anic meaning of the word ladun“.

The word “ladun” occurs eighteen times in seventeen different verses. It is always preceded by the preposition “min” (“from”), as in the following verses: 

Our Lord! Make not our hearts to deviate after You have guided us, and grant us mercy min ladunka (from Your ladun); surely You are the Bestower (3.8). Allah does not do injustice even of the weight of an atom, and if there is a good deed He multiplies it and gives min ladunhu (from His ladun) a great reward (4.40).

And say [O Muhammad!]: “My Lord! Let me enter by the gate of truth, and let me exit by the gate of truth, and grant me min ladunka (from Your ladun) a helping authority (17.80).

The Arabic word “‘inda“, which is also used in the Qur’an, is close in meaning to “ladun“. If we look up first “‘inda” in the lexicon, we find that is defined as a “noun donating the time and place of occurrence. It occurs either as an adverb or in the genitive form governed by the preposition ‘min’“. The word “ladun“, on the other hand, is defined as an “adverb denoting place or time in the sense of ‘‘inda‘, but which implies more closeness and intimacy. It can occur in the genitive form governed by the preposition ‘min’“. Clearly, there is a great deal of similarity between the words “ladun” and “‘inda“, but it is also clear that there is a significant, albeit subtle, difference between them.

The use of “ladun” in writing is not as common as that of “‘inda“. However, when used, “ladun” is used in the same way as “‘inda“, and in similar contexts. Writers focus on the great deal of similarity between the meanings of “ladun” and “‘inda“, and ignore the subtle difference between them. These two words appear in writings as two synonymous words, with no distinction between them.

The substantial and clear similarity between “ladun” and “‘inda” and people’s use of them as synonymous must not lead us to the wrong conclusion that they have the same meaning in the Book of Allah. It has already been noted that Allah purposefully and wisely chose each and every word and letter in the Qur’an, so the exegete must take into consideration the use of “ladun” or “‘inda” in a verse when interpreting it. Allah gives a special meaning to “ladun” that is different from the general, broader meaning in which He uses the word “‘inda“, despite the similarity between them. So what is the special sense that distinguishes “ladun” from “inda” in the Qur’an?

Allah has revealed to us the special meaning of “ladun” in the following verses: 

And We did not create the heaven, the earth, and what is between them in play (21.16). Had We wished to take a pastime, We would have made it min ladunna (from Our ladun), if We ever did (21.17).

Allah tells us in the first verse that His creation of “the heaven, the earth, and what is between them” was no playful act, but an act of creation with truth. He created everything with His wisdom, and appointed for the heaven and the earth a purpose to fulfill until the Day of Resurrection:

Do they [people] not reflect within themselves: Allah did not create the heavens, the earth, and what is between them but with truth, and for an appointed term! Many people deny the meeting of their Lord (30.8).

We did not create the heaven, the earth, and what is between them in vain; that is the opinion of those who disbelieve, so woe to those who disbelieve from the Fire (38.27).

We did not create the heavens, the earth, and what is between them save with truth, and for an appointed term; and those who disbelieve turn aside from what they are warned of (46.3).

On the Day of Resurrection, the whole universe will be changed:

On the Day when the earth shall be changed into a different earth, and the heavens also, and they [the people] shall come forth before Allah, the One, the Supreme (14.48).

Clearly, the phrase “the heaven, the earth, and what is between them” in verse 21.16 above refers to the whole of the creation. Then in verse 21.17, Allah tells us that had He wanted to have a pastime, which He would not, He would have chosen that from “His ladun“, not using the creation of “the heaven, the earth, and what is between them“. Now, if the phrase “the heaven, the earth, and what is between them” refers to all of the creation, then the phrase “min ladunna (from Our ladun)” must refer to the divine entity Himself and nothing else. Before “the heaven, the earth, and what is between them” there was nothing other than Allah, the first and ever-existing: 

Say [O Muhammad”]: “He is the First and the Last, the Outward and the Inward” (from 57.3).

Without creating “the heaven, the earth, and what is between them” there would have been nothing other than Allah, the First, the Self-Sustained. Thus, Allah tells us in verses 21.16-17 that the idea that the creation of “the heaven, the earth, and what is between them” was some kind of a pastime is misguided. Had He wanted to have a pastime – which He would never do – He would not have needed to create anything, as He would have had that pastime “min ladunna (from Our ladun)“, i.e. from His divine presence. Obviously the verses do not imply that Allah could have sought a pastime, but stress that the creation of the universe was not a playful act.

It is, thus, clear that Allah differentiates between “ladun” and “inda” in the Qur’an, using the former to things that are very close to Him, while using the latter in a broader sense. When attributed to Allah, the word “ladun” refers to special things that come directly from Him. If the referent was mercy, then it is direct mercy from Allah (from His ladun); if it was knowledge, then it is direct knowledge from Him; and so on. For instance, Allah describes the Qur’an a Book from His ladun:

Alif; Lam; Ra’; This is a Book whose verses have been perfected, then made plain, min ladun (from the ladun of) One who is Wise, All-aware (11.1).

The Qur’an is derived from the knowledge of Allah’s ladun, which no creature can reach without Allah’s help: 

Say [O Muhammad!]: “If the human beings and the jinn get together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they could not bring the like of it, even if they backed up each other with help and support” (17.88).

In the eighteen occurrences of the word “ladun” in the Qur’an, we see it attributed to other than Allah only in one verse. Significantly, Allah is not the direct user of the word in this sense, as it occurs in a speech by Prophet Moses in his dialog with the righteous and wise man (who is referred to in hadith and exegesis literature as “Khidhr”): 

He [Moses] said: “If I ask you about anything after this, keep me not in your company; indeed you have received an excuse min ladunni (from my ladun)” (18.76).

As for the word “‘inda” in the phrase “min ‘inda“, its use in the Qur’an is not restricted to referring to what is “min ‘inda (from)” Allah, as we can see in the following two verses which are direct speech by Allah: 

Many of the People of the Book wish that they could turn you [O you who believe!] back into disbelievers after your faith, out of envy min ‘indi (from) themselves, after the truth has become manifest to them; but pardon and forgive, until Allah accomplishes His purpose. Allah is able to do all things (2.109).

What! When a misfortune befell you [O you who believe!], and you had certainly afflicted [the disbelievers] with twice as much, you began to say: “Whence is this?” Say [O Muhammad”]: “It is min ‘indi (from) themselves; Allah is able to do all things” (3.165).

Among the verses in which “ladun” occurs, and which expound the special Qur’anic meanings of this word, are those that contain Zacharias’ prayer to Allah to give him offspring. When this noble Prophet realized that the food that Mary was receiving was coming “min ‘inda (from) Allah“, he asked Allah to intervene and miraculously give him offspring as He gave Mary food. He asked for that “min ladun Allah (from Allah’s ladun)“: 

Her Lord accepted her [Mary] with a goodly acceptance, made her to grow a goodly growth, and made Zacharias her guardian. Whenever Zacharias went into the sanctuary where she was, he found that she had sustenance. He said: “O Mary! Whence comes this [sustenance] to you?” She answered: “It is min ‘indi (from) Allah. Allah gives to whom He pleases without measure” (3.37). There did Zacharias pray to his Lord and said: “My Lord! Grant me min ladunka (from Your ladun) goodly offspring. You are the Hearer of prayer” (3.38).

He [Zacharias] said: “My Lord! My bones wax feeble and my head is shining with grey hair, and I have never been evil in my prayer to You, my Lord (19.4). I fear my relatives after me, and my wife is barren, so give me an heir min ladunka (from Your ladun or from You)” (19.5).

Allah answered Zacharias’ prayer with a miracle, giving him a son, Prophet John: 

And the angels called to him [Zacharias] as he stood praying in the sanctuary: “Allah gives you glad tidings of [a son whose name is] John, confirming, with a word from Allah, honorable, chaste, and a Prophet from among the righteous” (3.39).

[It was said to him]: “O Zacharias! We bring you tidings of a son whose name is John; we did not create someone similar to him before” (19.7).

Allah stresses that John was given by a mercy from His ladun as He refers to the compassion that He bestowed on John from His ladun

[It was said to John]: “O John! Take hold of the Book with might”. And We gave him Wisdom while still a child (19.12). And compassion min ladunna (from Our ladun), and purity; and he was dutiful (19.13).

Thus, Zacharias asked for offspring min ladun Allah, and Allah answered his prayer by giving him John “from His ladun“, i.e. with direct, miraculous intervention that caused the old Zacharias and his old and barren wife to have a child.

Among the verses that shed light on the meaning of “ladun” in the Qur’an are those that describe the encounter between Prophet Moses and Khidhr. It is related in hadith literature that one day Moses was asked: “Who is the most knowledgeable person?”. He replied “I am”. Allah was displeased that Moses attributed knowledge to himself rather than to Allah, so He ordered him to go on a journey to make him meet a more knowledgeable man. The latter was described by Allah as follows: 

One from among Our servants whom We had granted mercy min ‘indina (from Us) and whom We had taught knowledge min ladunna (from Our ladun) (18.65).

This knowledge from Allah’s ladun is the kind of knowledge that Allah confers only on the elite of His servants. The Qura’nic story then sheds more light on the nature of this very special knowledge. When Moses met Khidhr he asked him to accompany him saying: 

Shall I follow you that you may teach me right knowledge of what you have been taught? (from 18:66).

But Khidhr knew in advance, by virtue of his knowledge that came min landun (from the ladun of) Allah, that Moses was not going to be able to accompany him, so he replied: 

You shall not be able to bear with me (from 18.67). How shall you be able to bear with that which you have no knowledge of? (18.68).

However, Moses still wanted to accompany Khidhr and promised not to object to him: 

He [Moses] said: “Allah willing, you shall find me that I bear with you and do not disobey any order of yours” (18.69).

During his staying with Khidhr, Moses could not resist, despite his promise, objecting to three actions that Khidhr took. Khidhr damaged, with no apparent reason, a boat whose owners had agreed to take them both on board for free; then he killed a young boy, also with no apparent reason; and finally, he built, with asking for remuneration, a wall that was about to collapse in a village whose people had refused to entertain them. After Moses’ third objection, Khidhr decided that it was time that they parted company, as the purpose of that encounter was fulfilled. He explained to Moses his actions that he could not understand: 

He [Khidhr] said: “This shall be separation between me and you; now I will explain that which you could not bear with (18.78). As for the boat, it belonged to poor people who worked on river. I wanted to render it unserviceable because there was a king behind them who was taking every boat by force (18.79). And as for the boy, his parents were believers and we feared lest he should oppress them by rebellion and disbelief (81.80). And we desired that their Lord might replace him for them with one better in purity and nearer to mercy (18.81). And as for the wall, it belonged to two orphan boys in the city, and there was beneath it a treasure belonging to them. Their father had been righteous, and Your Lord desired that they should come to their full strength and should bring forth their treasure as a mercy from their Lord. I did it not do it upon my own command. This is the interpretation of that which you could not bear with” (18.82).

These verses shed light on the phrase “min ladun“, as we see that the knowledge from His ladun that Allah gave to Khidhr allowed this righteous servant to realize and comprehend matters that remained hidden even to a great Prophet, Moses, whom Allah had also conferred knowledge and wisdom on, and spoken to.

The delicate distinction in the Book of Allah between words that appear to be similar in meaning, such as “ladun” and “‘inda“, is another miraculous aspect of the Qur’an. This is another reminder of the veneration that we must have for this great Book that is full of secrets, and the honor and respect with which we must treat it.

Note

1 Transliterated Arabic words are set in italics, and transliterated Qur’anic Arabic words are set in italics bold green.

Copyright © 2007 Louay Fatoohi
All Rights Reserved

Jan 182004
 
This article is from the second edition of Jihad in the Qur’an: The Truth from the Source. The book is now in its third edition.

 
This is a complete listing of all verses in which the word “jihad” or one of its variations occur. The Qur’anic concept of jihad refers to exerting efforts, in the form of struggle against or resistance to something, for the sake of Allah. The listing does not include verse 9.79 which contains the word “juhdahum” — meaning “their capacity, effort, or labor” — as it is not related to the subject of the other verses, although that word shares the same root with “jihad”.
 
There are fifteen different linguistic variations of “jihad” in these verses. I have grouped together the verses that contain exactly the same word. The groups are listed in the Arabic alphabetical order of the variations of the term “jihad” that they contain.
 
The Arabic letters Alif (pronounced “aa”), Ya (pronounced “ee”), and waw (pronounced “oo”) are represented by the underlined characters a, i, and u, respectively. Transliterated Arabic words that are cited in the English translation are typed in italics.
 
There are thirty different verses in total. Verses 29.6, 25.52, 22.78, and 4.95 occur twice each in the listing, as each contains two different forms of the word “jihad”.
 
Due to the significance of the place of revelation of the verse, I have indicated that in square brackets at the end of each verse. Only six of these verses were revealed in Mecca. The remaining twenty four verses were all revealed in al-Madina.
 
A word of caution. While this listing comes handy for reference, it is essential for understanding the proper meanings of these verses – and any other verses — that they are studied in their Qur’anic contexts. Trying to interpret Qur’anic verses while taking them out of their contexts has been a common mistake; a mistake that is made at times innocently, and at others deliberately. Although published here as a stand-alone piece, this listing was originally prepared as an appendix to my book Jihad in the Qur’an: The Truth From the Source in which I discuss the concept of “jihad” in detail.
 

Al-Mujahiduna الْمُجَاهِدُونَ

لاَ يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنْ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرُ أُوْلِي الضَّرَرِ وَالْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ دَرَجَةً وَكُلاًّ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْحُسْنَى وَفَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا (النساء: 95). [مدنيّة.]

Not equal are the believers who have no impediment who stay [at home] and al-mujahiduna (those who do jihad) in the way of Allah with their properties and selves. Allah has favored al-mujahidina (those who do jihad) with their properties and selves above those who stay [at home] with a higher degree; and Allah has promised good to both. And Allah has favored al-mujahidina (those who do jihad) above those who stay [at home] with a mighty reward (4.95). [Madinite.]

Al-Mujahidina الْمُجَاهِدِينَ

لاَ يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنْ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرُ أُوْلِي الضَّرَرِ وَالْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ دَرَجَةً وَكُلاًّ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْحُسْنَى وَفَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا (النساء: 95). [مدنيّة.]

Not equal are the believers who have no impediment who stay [at home] and al-mujahiduna (those who do jihad) in the way of Allah with their properties and selves. Allah has favored al-mujahidina (those who do jihad) with their properties and selves above those who stay [at home] with a higher degree; and Allah has promised good to both. And Allah has favored al-mujahidina (those who do jihad) above those who stay [at home] with a mighty reward (4.95). [Madinite.]

وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ حَتَّى نَعْلَمَ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ مِنْكُمْ وَالصَّابِرِينَ وَنَبْلُوَ أَخْبَارَكُمْ (محمد: 31). [مدنيّة.]

And We shall try you [O you who believe!] until We know al-mujahidina (those who do jihad) and the patient among you, and test your record (47.31). [Madinite.]

Tujahiduna تُجَاهِدُونَ

تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنفُسِكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ (الصف: 11). [مدنيّة.]

That you [O you who believe!] believe in Allah and His Messenger, and tujahiduna (do jihad) in the way of Allah with your properties and selves. That is better for you if you know (61.11). [Madinite.]

Jahada جَاهَدَ

أَجَعَلْتُمْ سِقَايَةَ الْحَاجِّ وَعِمَارَةَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ كَمَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَجَاهَدَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لاَ يَسْتَوُونَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ (التوبة: 19). [مدنيّة.]

Count you [O people!] the giving of drink to pilgrims and the tendance of al-aram mosque equal to the deeds of he who believes in Allah and the Last Day and jahada (does jihad) in the way of Allah? They are not equal in the sight of Allah; and Allah does not guide the wrongdoers (9.19). [Madinite.]

وَمَنْ جَاهَدَ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَاهِدُ لِنَفْسِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَغَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ (العنكبوت: 6). [مكّية.]

jahada (does jihad), he yujahidu (does jihad) only for the benefit of his own soul. Surely, Allah is in no need for anything from the people (29.6). [Meccan.]

Jahidi جَاهِدِ

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ (التوبة: 73). [مدنيّة.]

O Prophet! Jahidi (do jihad) against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh to them; and their abode is hell, an evil destination (9.73). [Madinite.]

يَاأَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ (التحريم: 9). [مدنيّة.]

O Prophet! Jahidi (do jihad) against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh to them; and their abode is hell, an evil destination (66.9). [Madinite.]

Jahadaka جَاهَدَاكَ

وَوَصَّيْنَا الإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حُسْنًا وَإِنْ جَاهَدَاكَ لِتُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلاَ تُطِعْهُمَا إِلَيَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ (العنكبوت: 8). [مكّية.]

And We have enjoined on man goodness to parents, but if they jahadaka (do jihad against you) to make you associate [a god] with Me, of which you have no knowledge [being a god], do not obey them. To Me is your return [O people!], so I shall inform you of your past deeds (29.8). [Meccan.]

وَإِنْ جَاهَدَاكَ عَلى أَنْ تُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلاَ تُطِعْهُمَا وَصَاحِبْهُمَا فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفًا وَاتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ مَنْ أَنَابَ إِلَيَّ ثُمَّ إِلَيَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ (لقمان: 15). [مكّية.]

And if they jahadaka (do jihad against you) to make you associate [a god] with Me, of which you have no knowledge [being a god], do not obey them, but keep company with them in this world kindly; and follow the way of he who turns to Me. Then to Me is your [O people!] return, then I shall inform you of your past deeds (31.15). [Meccan.]

Jahidhum جَاهِدْهُمْ

فَلاَ تُطِعْ الْكَافِرِينَ وَجَاهِدْهُمْ بِهِ جِهَادًا كَبِيرًا (الفرقان: 52). [مكّية.]

So do not [O Muhammad!] obey the disbelievers, and jahidhum (do jihad against them), with it [the Qur’an], a mighty jihadan (jihad) (25.52). [Meccan.]

Jahadu جَاهَدُوا

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أُوْلَئِكَ يَرْجُونَ رَحْمَةَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ (البقرة: 218). [مدنيّة.]

Surely those who believed and those who immigrated and jahadu (did jihad) in the way of Allah, these hope for the mercy of Allah; and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful (2.218). [Madinite.]

أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَنْ تَدْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمْ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا مِنْكُمْ وَيَعْلَمَ الصَّابِرِينَ (آل عمران: 142). [مدنيّة.]

Do you [O you who believe!] think that you will enter paradise before Allah has known those who jahadu (did jihad) and the patient among you (3.142)? [Madinite.]

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ آوَوا وَنَصَرُوا أُوْلَئِكَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَلَمْ يُهَاجَرُوا مَا لَكُمْ مِنْ وَلاَيَتِهِمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ حَتَّى يُهَاجِرُوا وَإِنْ اسْتَنصَرُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ فَعَلَيْكُمْ النَّصْرُ إِلاَّ عَلَى قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ مِيثَاقٌ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ (الأنفال: 72). [مدنيّة.]

Surely those who believed, immigrated, and jahadu [did jihad] with their properties and selves in the way of Allah, and those who gave shelter [to the immigrants] and helped them, these [the immigrants and the helpers] are close friends of each other. Those who believed but did not immigrate, you [O you who believe!] have no duty of close friendship toward them until they immigrate; and if they seek help from you for the purpose of religion, then help is incumbent on you, except [helping them] against a people between whom and you there is a treaty; and Allah sees what you do (8.72). [Madinite.]

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ آوَوا وَنَصَرُوا أُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ حَقًّا لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ (الأنفال: 74). [مدنيّة.]

And those who believed, immigrated, and jahadu (did jihad) in the way of Allah, and those who gave shelter [to the immigrants] and helped [them], these [the immigrants and the helpers] are truly the believers; they shall have forgiveness and bountiful provision [from Allah] (8.74). [Madinite.]

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْ بَعْدُ وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا مَعَكُمْ فَأُوْلَئِكَ مِنْكُمْ وَأُوْلُوا الأَرْحَامِ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلَى بِبَعْضٍ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ (الأنفال: 75). [مدنيّة.]

And those who believed afterward, immigrated, and jahadu (did jihad) with you [O you who believe!], they are of you. And those who are akin have prior rights to each other in the ordinance of Allah. Surely Allah knows all things (8.75). [Madinite.]

أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَنْ تُتْرَكُوا وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا مِنْكُمْ وَلَمْ يَتَّخِذُوا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلاَ رَسُولِهِ وَلاَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلِيجَةً وَاللَّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ (التوبة: 16). [مدنيّة.]

Do you [O you who believe!] think that you will be left alone while Allah has not yet known those of you who jahadu (did jihad) and did not take adherents other than Allah, His Messenger and the believers? And Allah is aware of what you do (9.16). [Madinite.]

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الْفَائِزُونَ (التوبة: 20). [مدنيّة.]

Those who believed, immigrated, and jahadu (did jihad) in the way of Allah with their properties and selves are much higher in degree with Allah; and those are the winners (9.20). [Madinite.]

لَكِنْ الرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ جَاهَدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ وَأُوْلَئِكَ لَهُمْ الْخَيْرَاتُ وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الْمُفْلِحُونَ (التوبة: 88). [مدنيّة.]

But the Messenger and those who believe with him jahadu (do jihad) with their properties and selves; and it is these who shall have good things, and it is these who shall be successful (9.88). [Madinite.]

ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا فُتِنُوا ثُمَّ جَاهَدُوا وَصَبَرُوا إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِنْ بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ (النحل: 110). [مكّية.]

Then surely your Lord [O Muhammad!], with respect to those who immigrated after they were persecuted, then jahadu(did jihad), and were patient, surely your Lord after that is Forgiving, Merciful (16.110). [Meccan.]

وَالَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا فِينَا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ (العنكبوت: 69). [مكّية.]

And [as for] those who jahadu (do jihad) for Us, We shall certainly guide them to Our ways; and Allah is surely with the doers of good (29.69). [Meccan.]

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَرْتَابُوا وَجَاهَدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُونَ (الحجرات: 15). [مدنيّة.]

The believers are those who believe in Allah and His Messenger, then do not doubt [the verity of Islam], and jahadu (do jihad) with their properties and selves in the way of Allah; those are the truthful (49.15). [Madinite.]

Jahidu جَاهِدُوا

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَابْتَغُوا إِلَيْهِ الْوَسِيلَةَ وَجَاهِدُوا فِي سَبِيلِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (المائدة: 35). [مدنيّة.]

O you who believe! Act dutifully toward Allah, seek means of nearness to Him, and jahidu (do jihad) in His way that you may succeed (5.35). [Madinite.]

انفِرُوا خِفَافًا وَثِقَالاً وَجَاهِدُوا بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنفُسِكُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ (التوبة: 41). [مدنيّة.]

Go forth [O you who believe!] whether you are free or busy, and jahidu (do jihad) in the way of Allah with your properties and selves; that is better for you, if you know (9.41). [Madinite.]

وَإِذَا أُنزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ أَنْ آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَجَاهِدُوا مَعَ رَسُولِهِ اسْتَأْذَنَكَ أُوْلُوا الطَّوْلِ مِنْهُمْ وَقَالُوا ذَرْنَا نَكُنْ مَعَ الْقَاعِدِينَ (التوبة: 86). [مدنيّة.]

And when a chapter is revealed, stating: “Believe in Allah and jahidu (do jihad) with His Messenger,” the wealthy ones among them [the Muslims] ask permission of you [O Muhammad!] and say: “Let us be with those who stay home” (9.86). [Madinite.]

وَجَاهِدُوا فِي اللَّهِ حَقَّ جِهَادِهِ هُوَ اجْتَبَاكُمْ وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ مِلَّةَ أَبِيكُمْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ هُوَ سَمَّاكُمْ الْمُسْلِمينَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَفِي هَذَا لِيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ شَهِيدًا عَلَيْكُمْ وَتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلاَةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِاللَّهِ هُوَ مَوْلاَكُمْ فَنِعْمَ الْمَوْلَى وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ (الحج: 78). [مدنيّة.]

And jahidu (do jihad) [O you who believe!] in the way of Allah jihadihi (the kind of jihad that is due to Him). He has chosen you and has not laid upon you a hardship in religion; it is the faith of your father Abraham. He [Allah] has named you al-Muslimin (the Muslims) earlier and in this [the Qur’an], so that the Messenger be a witness over you, and you be witnesses over the people. Therefore keep up prayer, pay the obligatory alms, and hold fast to Allah; He is your Master; so how excellent a Master and how excellent a Supporter! (22.78). [Madinite.]

Jihadin جِهَادٍ

قُلْ إِنْ كَانَ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَالٌ اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَارَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَاكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنْ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَجِهَادٍ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَتَرَبَّصُوا حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ وَاللَّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ (التوبة: 24). [مدنيّة.]

Say [O Muhammad!]: “If your fathers, sons, brothers, mates, clans, properties which you have acquired, trade whose decline you fear, and dwellings which you like, are dearer to you than Allah, His Messenger, and jihadin (jihad) in His way, then wait till Allah brings about His command”; and Allah does not guide the backsliders (9.24). [Madinite.]

Jihadan جِهَادًا

فَلاَ تُطِعْ الْكَافِرِينَ وَجَاهِدْهُمْ بِهِ جِهَادًا كَبِيرًا (الفرقان: 52). [مكّية.]

So do not [O Muhammad!] obey the disbelievers, and jahidhum (do jihad against them), with it [the Qur’an], a mighty jihadan (jihad) (25.52). [Meccan.]

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لاَ تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَقَدْ كَفَرُوا بِمَا جَاءَكُمْ مِنْ الْحَقِّ يُخْرِجُونَ الرَّسُولَ وَإِيَّاكُمْ أَنْ تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ إِنْ كُنتُمْ خَرَجْتُمْ جِهَادًا فِي سَبِيلِي وَابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِي تُسِرُّونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ بِمَا أَخْفَيْتُمْ وَمَا أَعْلَنتُمْ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْهُ مِنْكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ (الممتحنة: 1). [مدنيّة.]

O you who believe! Do not take My enemy and your enemy for close friends, offering them love while they disbelieve what has come to you of the truth, [and] drive out the Messenger and yourselves because you believe in Allah — your Lord — if you have gone forth jihadan (in doing jihad) in My way and seeking My pleasure. You show love to them in secret, and I know what you conceal and what you reveal; and whoever of you does this, he indeed has gone astray from the straight path (60.1). [Madinite.]

Jihadihi جِهَادِهِ

وَجَاهِدُوا فِي اللَّهِ حَقَّ جِهَادِهِ هُوَ اجْتَبَاكُمْ وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ مِلَّةَ أَبِيكُمْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ هُوَ سَمَّاكُمْ الْمُسْلِمينَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَفِي هَذَا لِيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ شَهِيدًا عَلَيْكُمْ وَتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلاَةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِاللَّهِ هُوَ مَوْلاَكُمْ فَنِعْمَ الْمَوْلَى وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ (الحج: 78). [مدنيّة.]

And jahidu (do jihad) [O you who believe!] in the way of Allah jihadihi (the kind of jihad that is due to Him). He has chosen you and has not laid upon you a hardship in religion; it is the faith of your father Abraham. He [Allah] has named you al-Muslimin (the Muslims) earlier and in this [the Qur’an], so that the Messenger be a witness over you, and you be witnesses over the people. Therefore keep up prayer, pay the obligatory alms, and hold fast to Allah; He is your Master; so how excellent a Master and how excellent a Supporter! (22.78). [Madinite.]

Yujahidu يُجَاهِدُ

وَمَنْ جَاهَدَ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَاهِدُ لِنَفْسِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَغَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ (العنكبوت: 6). [مكّية.]

And whoever jahada (does jihad), he yujahidu (does jihad) only for the benefit of his own soul. Surely, Allah is in no need for anything from the people (29.6). [Meccan.]

Yujahidu يُجَاهِدُوا

لاَ يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ أَنْ يُجَاهِدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالْمُتَّقِينَ (التوبة: 44). [مدنيّة.]

Those who believe in Allah and the Last Day do not ask you [O Muhammad!] that they do not yujahidu (do jihad) with their properties and selves. And Allah is aware of the dutiful (9.44). [Madinite.]

فَرِحَ الْمُخَلَّفُونَ بِمَقْعَدِهِمْ خِلاَفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَكَرِهُوا أَنْ يُجَاهِدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَقَالُوا لاَ تَنفِرُوا فِي الْحَرِّ قُلْ نَارُ جَهَنَّمَ أَشَدُّ حَرًّا لَوْ كَانُوا يَفْقَهُونَ (التوبة: 81). [مدنيّة.]

Those who were left behind were glad to stay home and not join the Messenger of Allah. They were averse to yujahidu (do jihad) with their properties and selves, and said [to other Muslims]: “Do not go forth in the heat.” Say [O Muhammad!]: “The fire of hell is far hotter,” if they understand (9.81). [Madinite.]

Yujahiduna يُجَاهِدُونَ

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَنْ يَرْتَدَّ مِنْكُمْ عَنْ دِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِي اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ يُحِبُّهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَهُ أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ يُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلاَ يَخَافُونَ لَوْمَةَ لاَئِمٍ ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ (المائدة: 54). [مدنيّة.]

O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion, then Allah will bring a people whom He loves and who love Him; who are humble toward the believers, are proud toward the disbelievers, yujahiduna (do jihad) in the way of Allah, and do not fear the blame of any blamer. That is the favor of Allah that He gives to whom He pleases. And Allah is All-embracing, Knowing (5.54). [Madinite.]

 

          

 Translation by Louay Fatoohi 2004