Nov 222008

This is “Appendix A.6: The Qur’anic Verses on Moses in the Chapter of Ghafir (Forgiver) (40.23-46)” of the book The Mystery of Israel in Ancient Egypt: The Exodus in the Qur’an, the Old Testament, Archaeological Finds, and Historical Sources

We sent Moses with our signs and clear authority (40.23) to Pharaoh, Haman, and Korah, but they said: “A lying magician!” (40.24). When the truth from Us came to them they said: “Kill the sons of those who are with him but spare their women.” The scheming of the disbelievers is bound to fail (40.25). Pharaoh said: “Let me kill Moses and let him call on his Lord. I fear that he will change your religion or cause corruption in the land” (40.26). Moses said: “I take refuge in my and your Lord from every arrogant person who does not believe in the Day of Reckoning” (40.27). A believing man from Pharaoh’s people who concealed his faith said: “Will you kill a man for saying ‘my Lord is Allah’ when he has come to you with manifest proofs from your Lord? If he is a liar then his lie would be against him, and if he is truthful then some of what he has threatened you with would fall on you. Allah does not guide one who is an extravagant liar (40.28). O my people! Today kingship is yours and you are in control in the land. But who would help us against the might of Allah if it comes on us?” Pharaoh said: “I let you see only what I see. I will guide you only in the right direction” (40.29). The one who believed said: “O my people! I fear for you the like of the day of the parties (40.30) — the like of the case of the people of Noah, ‘Ad, Thamud, and those after them. Allah does not desire any injustice for His servants (40.31). O my people! I fear for you the Day of Crying Out (40.32) — the day when you turn away in retreat, with none to defend you from Allah. Whomever Allah leads astray, he has no guide (40.33). Surely Joseph came to you in times gone by with clear proofs, but you ever remained in doubt about what he brought to you. When he died, you said: ‘Allah will not send a messenger after him.’ Thus does Allah cause to err him who is an extravagant doubter” (40.34). Those who dispute about the signs of Allah without any authority has come to them — that is very hateful in the sight of Allah and the believers. Thus does Allah set a seal on every arrogant, tyrant heart (40.35). Pharaoh said: “Haman, build for me a tower that I may be able reach the ways (40.36) — the ways of heavens to look at Moses’ god. I believe he is a liar.” Pharaoh’s evil work was made to look fair to him and he was turned away from the straight path. Pharaoh’s scheming is bound to fail (40.37). The one who believed said: “O my people! Follow me so that I can guide you to the right path (40.38). O my people! The life of this world is temporary and it is the hereafter that is the final abode (40.39). Whoever does evil he will only be recompensed with the like of it.” Whoever does good, whether a male or female while being a believer — those will enter Paradise and be provided for without count (40.40). [The one who believed said]: “O my people! How is it that I call you to salvation yet you call me to the Fire (40.41)? You call me to disbelieve in Allah and to associate with Him gods whom I have no knowledge of yet I call you to the Impregnable, the Forgiving One! (40.42). No doubt that what you call me to has no real call in this world or in the hereafter. Our return will be to Allah and the extravagant are the people of the Fire (40.43). You shall remember what I am saying and I shall commit my case to Allah. Allah sees the servants” (40.44). So Allah protected him from the evil of their scheming, and the woe of the torment encompassed the people of Pharaoh (40.45). They are all exposed to the fire in the morning and evening, and when the Hour comes [it will be said]: “Admit the people of Pharaoh to the worst torment” (40.46). 



Translation by Louay Fatoohi and Shetha Al-Dargazelli 2008

Nov 222008

This is “Appendix A.5: The Qur’anic Verses on Moses in the Chapter of al-Baqara (The Cow) (2.47-71)” of the book The Mystery of Israel in Ancient Egypt: The Exodus in the Qur’an, the Old Testament, Archaeological Finds, and Historical Sources

O Children of Israel! Remember My favor to you and that I preferred you above all peoples (2.47). Fear a day on which no soul shall pay any recompense for another, no intercession will be accepted from it, no compensation will be taken from it, and they will not be helped (2.48). [Remember] when We rescued you from Pharaoh’s people who subjected you to the worst torment, slaying your sons and sparing your women. There was a great trial from your Lord in this (2.49). When We parted the sea for you, so we saved you and drowned Pharaoh’s people while you look (2.50). When We appointed for Moses forty nights, then you took the calf [for a god] after him, and you were wrongdoers (2.51). Then We forgave you after it that you may give thanks (2.52). When We gave Moses the Book and the Discrimination [between right and wrong] that you may be guided (2.53). When Moses said to his people: “O my people! You have wronged yourselves by taking the calf [for a god], so repent to your Creator and kill yourselves (those who have been guilty of the crime); that is better for you in the eyes of your Creator.” So He pardoned you; He is the forgiving, the merciful (2.54). When you said: “O Moses! We will not believe you until we see Allah plainly,” so the thunderbolt caught you while you were looking on (2.55). Then We resurrected you after your death that you may give thanks (2.56). We overshadowed you with the clouds and sent down on you the manna and the quails, [saying]: “Eat of the good things We have given you.“ They did not wrong Us but they were wronging themselves (2.57). When We said: “Enter this town and eat from wherever you like as much as you like. Enter the gate prostrating and say ‘hittatun’ so that We forgive your sins and give increase to the good-doers” (2.58). The wrongdoers then changed what had been said to them with another saying, so We sent down on those who did wrong a punishment from heaven because of their rebellion (2.59). When Moses asked for drink for his people We said: “Strike the rock with your staff,” so twelve springs burst forth. Every people knew their drinking place. [We said]: “Eat and drink of what Allah has provided and do not cause corruption on the earth” (2.60). When you said: “O Moses! We cannot endure one kind of food. Pray to your Lord to produce for us of what the earth grows — its beans, cucumbers, garlic, lentils, and onions.” He said: “Would you exchange that which is better for that which is meaner? Go down to some town and you shall have what you asked for.” Humiliation and abasement were stamped on them and they incurred wrath from Allah, because they used to deny Allah’s signs and unjustly kill prophets. That is because they disobeyed and transgressed (2.61). Those who believe, the Jews, the Christians, and the Sabaeans — whoever believe in Allah and the Last Day and does good — they shall have their reward from their Lord, and there is no fear for them, nor shall they grieve (2.62). When We took a covenant with you and raised the mountain above you [saying]: “Take firmly what We have given you and remember what is in it that you may become pious” (2.63). Then you turned away after that; had it not for Allah’s favor on you and His mercy you would have been among the losers (2.64). You knew about those of you who transgressed during the Sabbath; We said to them: “Be despised apes” (2.65). We made it a punishment at the time and later (for those who do the same) and an admonition to the pious (2.66). When Moses said to his people: “Allah commands you to slaughter a cow.” They said: “Are you making fun of us?” He said: “I take refuge with Allah from being one of the ignorant” (2.67). They said: “Pray to your Lord for us to clarify to us what she is.” He said: “He says she is neither old nor a heifer but middle-aged between the two, so do what you are commanded” (2.68). They said: “Pray to your Lord for us to clarify to us her color.” He said: “He says she is a yellow cow, bright is her color, and she is pleasing to the beholders” (2.69). They said: “Pray to your Lord for us to clarify to us what she is, for the cows look the same to us; Allah willing, we shall be guided” (2.70). He said: “He says that she is a cow that is not used to plough the land or water the field. She is sound, blemishless.“ They said: “Now you have brought the truth.” They slaughtered her, but they nearly did not do (2.71). 



Translation by Louay Fatoohi and Shetha Al-Dargazelli 2008

Nov 222008

This is “Appendix A.4: The Qur’anic Verses on Moses in the Chapter of ash-Shu‘ara’ (the Poets) (26.10-66)” of the book The Mystery of Israel in Ancient Egypt: The Exodus in the Qur’an, the Old Testament, Archaeological Finds, and Historical Sources

When your Lord [O Muhammad!] called Moses [saying]: “Go to the wrongdoing people (26.10) — the people of Pharaoh. Will they not be pious” (26.11)? He said: “My Lord! I fear that they will accuse me of telling lies (26.12), my breast will be straitened, and my tongue will not speak plainly, so call Aaron [to help me] (26.13). They also have a charge of crime against me, so I am afraid that they will kill me” (26.14). He said: “By no means. Go you both with Our signs; We shall be with you, hearing (26.15). Go to Pharaoh and say: ‘We are messengers of the Lord of all peoples (26.16). Let the Children of Israel go with us’” (26.17). [Pharaoh] said [to Moses]: “Did we not rear you among us as a child, you lived a number of years among us (26.18), and then you committed what you did, being one of the ungrateful” (26.19)? He said: “I did it when I was one of those who are astray (26.20). Then I fled from you when I feared you, so my Lord granted me Wisdom and appointed me one as of the messengers (26.21). Is it a favor you remind me of that you have enslaved the Children of Israel” (26.22)? Pharaoh said: “Who is the Lord of all peoples” (26.23)? He (Moses) said: “The Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, if you would be sure” (26.24). He (Pharaoh) said to those around him: “Do you not hear” (26.25)? He (Moses) said: “Your Lord and the Lord of your forefathers” (26.26). He (Pharaoh) said: “Your messenger who has been sent to you is a madman” (26.27). He (Moses) said: “The Lord of the East and the West and what is between them, if you would understand” (26.28). He (Pharaoh) said: “If you choose a god other than me, I shall imprison you” (26.29). He (Moses) said: “Even if I show you clear evidence” (26.30)? He (Pharaoh) said: “Produce it then, if you are of one the truthful” (26.31). So he threw his staff down, and it became a manifest serpent (26.32). And he took his hand out and, lo! it was white to the beholders (26.33). He (Pharaoh) said to the chiefs around him: “This is an accomplished magician (26.34) who would like to drive you out of your land by his magic; what is your advice” (26.35)? They said: “Let him and his brother wait, and send to the cities summoners (26.36) who shall bring to you every skilled magician” (26.37). So the magicians were gathered together at the set time on an appointed day (26.38). It was said to the people: “Will you gather together (26.39)? So that we may follow the [evidence of the] magicians if they are the victorious” (26.40). When the magicians came, they said to Pharaoh: “Shall we get a reward if we are the victorious” (26.41)? He said: “Yes, and you will be considered with those who are brought close [to me]” (26.42). Moses said to them: “Throw down what you are going to throw” (26.43). They threw down their cords and staffs and said: “By Pharaoh’s might, we shall be the victorious” (26.44). Then Moses threw down his staff, and it swallowed that which they falsely showed (26.45). So the magicians were thrown down in prostration (26.46). They said: “We believe in the Lord of all peoples (26.47), the Lord of Moses and Aaron” (26.48). He Said: “You have believed in him before I give you permission? He must be your master who taught you magic, so you shall know. I will cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I shall crucify you all” (26.49). They said: “It is no harm, for to our Lord we shall return (26.50). We hope that our Lord will forgive us our sins that we are the first believers” (26.51). We revealed to Moses: “Take away My servants by night; you will be pursued” (26.52). Then Pharaoh sent into the cities summoners (26.53) [saying] that: “These are a small isolated group (26.54), they have angered us (26.55), and we are apprehensive of a coalition” (26.56). So We removed them from gardens, springs (26.57), treasures, and a fair abode (26.58); and We caused the Children of Israel to inherit them (26.59). Then they pursued them eastward (26.60). When the two gatherings became close enough to see each other, those who were with Moses said: “We will be caught” (26.61). He said: “No way! My Lord is with me; He will show me a way out” (26.62). We revealed to Moses: “Strike the sea with your staff,” so it split, and each part was like a huge mountain (26.63). We brought near the others (Pharaoh and his army) (26.64). We saved Moses and all those who were with him (26.65). Then We drowned the others (26.66).



 Translation by Louay Fatoohi and Shetha Al-Dargazelli 2008

Nov 222008

This is “Appendix A.3: The Qur’anic Verses on Moses in the Chapter of al-Qasas (the Stories) (28.2-46)” of the book The Mystery of Israel in Ancient Egypt: The Exodus in the Qur’an, the Old Testament, Archaeological Finds, and Historical Sources

Those are verses of the manifest Book (28.2). We narrate to you [O Muhammad!] parts of the story of Moses and Pharaoh in truth, for people who believe (28.3). Pharaoh exalted himself in the earth and made its people castes, oppressing one group of them, slaying their sons and sparing their women; he was one of the corrupters (28.4). We desired to show favor to those who were oppressed in the earth, make them leaders, make them the inheritors (28.5), establish them in the earth, and show Pharaoh, Haman, and their soldiers from them that which they feared (28.6). We inspired Moses’ mother: “Suckle him, and when you fear for him, cast him into the river and do not fear or grieve; We shall bring him back to you and make him one of the messengers” (28.7). Then the people of Pharaoh picked him up [from the river], to become for them an enemy and a sorrow; Pharaoh, Haman, and their soldiers were sinful (28.8). The wife of Pharaoh said: “[He will be] a delight for the eye for me and you. Do not kill him. He may be useful for us, or we may take him as a son,” while they were unaware [of what was going to happen] (28.9). The heart of Moses’ mother became void; she would have revealed it (the secret) had We not strengthened her heart to be one of the believers (28.10). She said to his sister: “Trace him,” so she observed him from afar while they [with whom Moses was] were unaware (28.11). We had forbidden foster mothers for him before. She (his sister) said: “Shall I show you a household who could rear him for you and take good care of him” (28.12)? So We returned him to his mother so that she be comforted and not grieve, and to know that Allah’s promise is true, but most of them (people) do not know (28.13). When he attained his full strength and settled, We gave him Wisdom and Knowledge; thus do We reward the good doers (28.14). He entered the city at a time of unawareness by its people, and he found there two men fighting — one of his own people and the other of his enemies. He who was of his people asked him for help against him who was of his enemies. So Moses struck and killed him. He said: “This is of Satan’s doing; he is a manifest misleading enemy” (28.15). He said: “My Lord! I have wronged myself, so forgive me.” Then He forgave him; He is the Forgiving, the Merciful (28.16). He said: “My Lord! Forasmuch as You have favored me, I will nevermore be a supporter of the guilty” (28.17). And morning found him in the city, fearing, vigilant, when he who had appealed to him the day before cried out to him for help; Moses said to him: “You are indeed a manifest lurer” (28.18). When he was to assault the man who was an enemy to them both, he said: “O Moses! Is it your intention to kill me as you killed a person yesterday? Your intention is none other than to become a powerful tyrant in the land, and not to be one of the reformers” (28.19). A man came from the uttermost part of the city, running; he said: “O Moses! The chiefs are plotting against you to kill you, therefore leave [the city]; I am of those who give you good advice” (28.20). So he left it, fearing, vigilant; he said: “My Lord! Save me from the wrongdoing people” (28.21). When he turned his face toward Midian, he said: “May my Lord guide me to the right way” (28.22). When he came to the water of Midian he found at it a group of people watering [their flocks], and he found apart from them two women keeping back [their flocks]; he said: “What is the matter with you?” They said: “We cannot water [our flocks] till the shepherds return from the water, and our father is a very old man” (28.23). So he watered [their flocks] for them; then he turned aside into the shade, and said: “My Lord! I stand in need of whatever good You would send down to me” (28.24). Then one of them (the two women) came to him walking shyly; she said: “My father invites you to reward you for having watered [the flocks] for us.” When he came to him (their father) and told him his story he said: “fear no more; you have escaped from the wrongdoing people” (28.25). One of the two women said: “O my father! Hire him, for the best [man] that you can hire is one who is strong and trustworthy” (28.26). He said: “I would like to marry you to one of my two daughters and in return you hire yourself to me for eight years, and it is up to you if would make it ten, for I do not want to make it hard for you; Allah willing, you will find me one of the righteous” (28.27). He said: “This is [a contract] between me and you; whichever of the two terms I fulfill, there shall be no wrongdoing on my part, and Allah is a witness on what we say” (28.28). When Moses fulfilled the term and left in the night with his family, he perceived a fire at the side of the mountain. He said to his family: “Stay here; I have perceived a fire that I might bring you tidings from or a firebrand that you might warm yourselves” (28.29). When he came to it (the fire), he was called from the right side of the valley in the blessed spot at the tree: “O Moses! I am Allah, the Lord of all peoples” (28.30). And [that]: “Throw down your staff.” When he saw it moving like a snake he fled without tracing his steps. “O Moses! Draw near and do not fear for you are one of the secure ones (28.31). Enter your hand to your bosom and it will come forth white without harm; and do not show fear. These shall be two proofs from your Lord to Pharaoh and his chiefs; they are a rebellious people” (28.32). He said: “My Lord! I have killed a person from them and I fear that they will kill me (28.33). My brother Aaron is more eloquent than me, so make him a messenger with me — a helper to confirm me; I fear that they will accuse me of telling lies” (28.34). He said: “We will strengthen you with your brother, and We will give you both authority so that they shall not be able to reach you [for harm] on account of Our signs. You both and those who follow you will be the victorious” (28.35). When Moses brought to them Our clear signs, they said: “This is nothing other than invented magic, and we have never heard of this among our forefathers” (28.36). Moses said: “My Lord knows best him who has come with guidance from Him and whose will be the best end; the wrongdoers will not be successful” (28.37). Pharaoh said: “O chiefs! I know no god for you other than me, so kindle for me [a fire], O Haman, to bake the mud, and set up for me a lofty tower that I may look at Moses’ god; I believe he is one of the liars” (28.38). He and his soldiers behaved arrogantly in the earth without right, and they thought that they would not be brought back to Us (28.39). Therefore We seized him and his soldiers, and flung them into the sea. So see how the end of the wrongdoers was (28.40). We made them leaders who invite to the Fire, and on the Day of Resurrection they will not be helped (28.41). We followed them up with a curse in this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they will be among the hated (28.42). We gave Moses the Book after We had destroyed the generations of old, as clear testimonies for the people, guidance, and mercy, that they may remember (28.43). And you [O Muhammad!] were not on the western side [of the mountain] when We handed to Moses the matter, and you were not one of the witnesses (28.44). But We brought forth generations, and their lives dragged on for them. You were not dwelling with the people of Midian reciting to them Our verses, but We have sent [you as] a Messenger (28.45). You were not on the side of the mountain when We called [Moses], but this [knowledge that We have revealed to you] is a mercy from your Lord so that you warn a people to whom no warner before you came, that they may give heed (28.46). 



 Translation by Louay Fatoohi and Shetha Al-Dargazelli 2008

Nov 222008

This is “Appendix A.2: The Qur’anic Verses on Moses in the Chapter of TaHa (20.9-97)” of the book The Mystery of Israel in Ancient Egypt: The Exodus in the Qur’an, the Old Testament, Archaeological Finds, and Historical Sources

Has the story of Moses come to you [O Muhammad!] (20.9)? When he saw a fire he said to his family: “Stay here, for I have perceived a fire, that I may bring to you therefrom a brand or find a guidance [to the road] at the fire” (20.10). When he reached it, he was called: “O Moses! (20.11). It is Me, your Lord, so take off your sandals; you are in the sacred valley Tuwa (20.12). I have chosen you, so listen to what is revealed (20.13). I am Allah; there is no god save Me. Therefore worship Me and keep up prayer for My remembrance (20.14). The Hour [of Judgment] is coming; I keep it almost hidden, so that every soul will be rewarded according to its deeds (20.15). Let not the person who does not believe in it and follows his own passion turn you away from it so that you perish (20.16). What is that in your right hand, O Moses” (20.17)? He said: “This is my staff; I recline on it, I beat down with it tree leaves for my sheep, and I use it for other things” (20.18). He said: “Throw it down, O Moses!” (20.19). So he threw it down; and behold! it became a crawling serpent (20.20). He said: “Seize it and fear not. We will restore it to its former state (20.21). Draw your hand to your side, and it will come out white without harm, as another sign (20.22). To show you of Our great signs (20.23). Go to Pharaoh, for he has transgressed” (20.24). He said: “O my Lord! Expand my breast (20.25), ease my task for me (20.26), and loosen the knot of my tongue (20.27) so that they may understand what I say (20.28). Appoint for me a vizier from my family (20.29): Aaron, my brother (20.30). Strengthen my back with him (20.31) and let him share my task (20.32). So that we shall glorify You so much (20.33) and remember You so much (20.34). You have been caring to us” (20.35). He said: “You have been granted your request, O Moses! (20.36). We have thus conferred favor on you again (20.37). [The first was] when We revealed to your mother that which is revealed (20.38), saying: ‘Put him in a coffin, then throw him in the river. The river shall throw him onshore; there shall take him up one who is an enemy to Me and an enemy to him.’ And I threw over you love from Me, and that you should be brought up according to My will (20.39). When your sister came walking and said: ‘Shall I direct you to one who will take custody of him?’ So We brought you back to your mother, that her eye might be cooled and that she should not grieve. You killed a soul, then We delivered you from the grief, and We tried you with a severe test. Then you stayed for years with the people of Midian, then you came [here] as ordained, O Moses! (20.40). I have prepared you for Myself (20.41). Go you and your brother with My signs and do not slacken in remembering Me (20.42). Go both to Pharaoh; he has transgressed all bounds (20.43). Speak to him gentle words that he may remember or fear” (20.44). They said: “O our Lord! We fear that he may hasten to do evil to us or that he may play the tyrant” (20.45). He said: “Do not fear; I am with you, hearing and seeing (20.46). So go you both to him and say: ‘We are two messengers of your Lord; therefore send the Children of Israel with us and do not torment them; we have brought to you a sign from your Lord; peace be upon him who follows right guidance (20.47). It has been revealed to us that the torture will come upon him who rejects and turns back’” (20.48). He (Pharaoh) said: “So who is your Lord, O Moses” (20.49)? He said: “Our Lord is He Who created everything, then guided it [to its course]” (20.50). He said: “Then what about the past generations” (20.51)? He said: “The knowledge of them is with my Lord, in a book; my Lord neither errs nor forgets” (20.52). [It is He] who made the earth for you an expanse and made for you in it paths, and sent down from the sky water with which We have brought forth pairs of diverse species of vegetation (20.53). Eat and pasture your cattle; there are signs in this for people of intellect (20.54). From it We created you, into it We shall return you, and from it We will bring you forth a second time (20.55). We showed him all Our signs, but he rejected and refused (20.56). He said: “Have you come to us to drive us out of our land by your magic, O Moses (20.57)? We too shall produce to you magic like it. Set an appointment between us and you, which neither we nor you shall break, in a place where both shall have even chances” (20.58). He said: “Your appointment shall be the day of decoration, and let the people be gathered together in the early afternoon” (20.59). Pharaoh went and made his arrangement, then came [to the agreed place] (20.60). Moses said to them (the magicians): “Woe to you! Do not invent lies about Allah, lest He destroy you by a punishment, and he who invents lies is doomed to fail” (20.61). So they disputed with one another about their affair and kept the discourse secret (20.62). They said: “These are two magicians who wish to drive you out of your land by their magic and to take away your ideal tradition (20.63). Therefore concert your plan, then come as one. He shall prosper this day who gains the upper hand” (20.64). They said: “O Moses! Either you throw down [your staff] or we will be the first to throw down” (20.65). He said: “No, you throw down”; then lo! their cords and staffs looked to him, because of their magic, as if they were moving (20.66). So Moses felt inside fear (20.67). We said: “Do not fear; you have the upper hand (20.68). Throw down what is in your right hand, and it shall devour what they have worked; that which they have made is a magician’s work, and the magician shall not be successful wherever he may go” (20.69). So the magicians were thrown down in prostration; they said: “We believe in the Lord of Aaron and Moses” (20.70). He said: “You have believed in him before I give you permission? He must be your master who taught you magic. I shall cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will crucify you on the trunks of palm trees. You shall know who of us can give the more severe and lasting punishment” (20.71). They said: “We shall not prefer you to what has come to us of manifest signs and to He Who made us. Decide whatever you like to do; you can only decide about this world’s life (20.72). We have believed in our Lord that He may forgive us our sins and the magic that you compelled us to perform, and Allah is better and more lasting” (20.73). Whoever comes to his Lord as guilty he shall have hell where he shall not die or live (20.74). Whoever comes to Him as a believer who has done righteous deeds, for such are the high states (20.75). The gardens of Eden underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. This is the reward of he who purified himself (20.76). We revealed to Moses: “Take away My servants by night, then strike for them a dry path in the sea. Do not be afraid of being overtaken or have any fear” (20.77). Pharaoh then followed them with his soldiers, so there came upon them of the sea that which came upon them? (20.78). Pharaoh led his people astray and he did not guide [them] aright (20.79). O Children of Israel! We have rescued you from your enemy, appointed a meeting for you on the right side of the mountain, and sent down on you the manna and the quails (20.80), [saying]: “Eat of the good things We have given you, but do not transgress in them, otherwise My wrath would fall on you. Whoever My wrath falls on he would perish (20.81). I am forgiving to the person who repents, believes, does good works, and is guided” (20.82). [We said]: “What have made you rush away from your people, O Moses” (20.83)? He said: “They are hard on my footsteps, but I have rushed to you, My Lord, that You might be pleased” (20.84). He said: “We have tempted your people after you and the Samiri has misled them” (20.85). Moses went back angry and sad to his people and said: “O my people! Has your Lord not promised you a good promise? Has the time been too long for you, or did you want wrath from your Lord to fall on you so you broke my appointment” (20.86)? They said: “We did not break your appointment of our volition, but we were made to carry loads of people’s ornaments, and we threw them, and so did the Samiri” (20.87). He (the Samiri) produced for them a calf — a body that lowed, and said: “This is your god and Moses’ god,” and he forgot (20.88). Could they not see that it did not return any speech and could not help or harm them (20.89)? Aaron had told them before: “O my people! You have been tempted by it and your Lord is Allah, so follow me and obey my commands” (20.90). They said: “We will not cease our devotion to it until Moses comes back to us” (20.91). He (Moses) said: “O Aaron! What prevented you, when you saw that they have gone astray (20.92), from following me? Have you disobeyed my command” (20.93)? He said: “O son of my mother! Do not seize me by the beard or head. I feared that you may say ‘you have divided the Children of Israel and have not observed my word’” (20.94). He (Moses) said: “What is the matter with you, O Samiri” (20.95)? He said: “I saw what they did not see, so I grasped a handful from the messenger’s track and cast it; so did my soul suggest to me” (20.96). He said: “Go then, you are doomed in this life to say ‘do not touch me,’ and you will have an appointment that you will not miss. Look to your god which you remained devoted to, we shall burn it and scatter its ashes into the sea” (20.97). 



 Translation by Louay Fatoohi and Shetha Al-Dargazelli 2008

Nov 222008

This is “Appendix A.1: The Qur’anic Verses on Moses in the Chapter of al-A‘raf” of the book The Mystery of Israel in Ancient Egypt: The Exodus in the Qur’an, the Old Testament, Archaeological Finds, and Historical Sources

Then we sent after them (the messengers) Moses with Our signs to Pharaoh and his chiefs, but they disbelieved in them; so see what the end of the corrupters was (7.103). Moses said: “O Pharaoh! I am a messenger from the Lord of all peoples (7.104). It is a duty on me to say nothing about Allah but the truth; I have come to you with clear proof from your Lord, therefore send with me the Children of Israel” (7.105). He said: “If you have come with a sign, then produce it, if you are one of the truthful” (7.106). So he threw his staff down, and it became a manifest serpent (7.107). And he took his hand out and lo! it was white to the beholders (7.108). The chiefs of Pharaoh’s people said: “This is an accomplished magician (7.109) who would like to drive you out of your land; what is your advice” (7.110)? They said: “Let him and his brother wait, and send to the cities summoners (7.111) to bring to you every accomplished magician” (7.112). The magicians came to Pharaoh and said: “We will have a reward if we are the victorious” (7.113). He said: “Yes, and you will be considered with those who are brought close [to me]” (7.114). They said: “O Moses! Either you throw down [your staff] or we will be the first to throw down” (7.115). He said: “You throw [first]”. So when they threw, they deceived peoples’ eyes, frightened them, and they produced a mighty feat of magic (7.116). We revealed to Moses: “Throw your staff”; then lo! it devoured what they faked (7.117). So the truth was established, and what they did became null (7.118). Thus they were vanquished there, and they turned abased (7.119). So the magicians were thrown down in prostration (7.120). They said: “We believe in the Lord of all peoples (7.121), the Lord of Moses and Aaron” (7.122). Pharaoh Said: “You have believed in Him before I give you permission? This is a plot that you have devised in the city to drive its people out of it, but you shall know (7.123). I will cut off your hands and legs on opposite sides, and then I will crucify you all” (7.124). They said: “We shall return to our Lord (7.125). You take revenge on us only because we have believed in the signs of our Lord when they came to us. Our Lord! Pour out on us patience and cause us to die as Muslims” (7.126). The chiefs of Pharaoh’s people said: “Do you leave Moses and his people to cause corruption in the land and forsake you and your gods?” He said: “We will kill their sons but spare their women, and surely we will overpower them” (7.127). Moses said to his people: “Ask help from Allah and be patient; surely the land is Allah’s; He gives it for inheritance to whom He wills of His servants. The [best] end is for the pious” (7.128). They said: “We were harmed before you came to us and we have been harmed since then also.” He said: “May your Lord destroy your enemy and make you inheritors in the land so He sees how you act” (7.129). We tested Pharaoh’s people with droughts and shortage of crops that they may heed (7.130). When good befalls them they would say: “This is due to us,” and when evil afflicts them, they would attribute it to the ill fortune of Moses and those with him; surely their ill fortune is only from Allah, but most of them do not know (7.131). They said: “Whatever sign you may bring to bewitch us, we will not believe you” (7.132). We sent on them the flood, the locusts, the lice, the frogs, and the blood as clear signs; but they behaved arrogantly and were guilty (7.133). When the plague hit them, they said: “O Moses! Pray to your Lord for us, by whatever covenant He has with you, that if you remove the plague from us we will believe you and we will send away with you the Children of Israel” (7.134). But when We removed the plague from them till a term that they were to reach, they broke the promise (7.135). Therefore We took vengeance on them and drowned them in the sea because they denied Our signs and were heedless of them (7.136). We made the people who used to be oppressed to inherit the eastern and western parts of the land that We have blessed. The good word of your Lord was fulfilled for the Children of Israel because of their patience, and We destroyed what Pharaoh and his people wrought and what they built (7.137). We made the Children of Israel cross the sea. They came upon a people who worshipped idols they have created. They said: “Moses, create for us a god as they have gods.” He said: “You are ignorant people (7.138). What they are engaged in shall be destroyed and what they are doing is in vain” (7.139). He said: “What, shall I seek for you a god other than Allah when He has preferred you above all peoples” (7.140)? [Remember, O Children of Israel!] when we rescued you from Pharaoh’s people who subjected you to the worse torment, killing your sons and sparing your women. There was a great trial from your Lord in this (7.141). We appointed for Moses thirty nights and then completed them with another ten, so the appointed time of his Lord was completed to forty nights. Moses said to his brother Aaron: “Take my place among my people, act rightly, and do not follow the path of the corrupting ones” (7.142). When Moses came to our appointment and was spoken to by his Lord he said: “My Lord, enable me to see You.” He said: “You shall not see Me, but look at the mountain; if it remains steady, you shall see Me.” When his Lord manifested Himself to the mountain He turned it into dust, and Moses fell down in a swoon. When he regained consciousness he said: “Glory be to You! I repent to You, and I am the first of the believers” (7.143). He said: “O Moses! I have chosen you over people for My messages and words, so take what I have given you and be among the thankful” (7.144). We wrote for him on the Tablets an admonition concerning everything and a detailing of everything. [We said to him:] “Take them firmly and command your people to observe their most excellent teachings. I will show you the abode of the ungodly (7.145). I will turn away from My signs those who unjustly behave with arrogance in the earth so if they see any sign they do not believe it, if they see the path of righteousness they do not take it for a path, and if they see the path of transgression they take it for a path. This is so because they have rejected Our signs and have been heedless of them (7.146). The works of those who rejected Our signs and the encounter of the hereafter will be in vain. Shall they be rewarded other than for what they have done” (7.147)? The people of Moses took to themselves [as a god] after him a lowing corporeal calf made of their ornaments. Did they not see that it did not speak to them and did not guide them in the path? They took it and were wrongdoers (7.148). When they realized what they have done and saw that they have sinned they said: “If our Lord does not show mercy to us and forgive us we will be among the losers” (7.149). When Moses returned to his people angry and grieved he said: “Evil is what you have done after me. Would you hasten your Lord’s matter?” He threw down the Tablets and seized his brother by the head, dragging him. He said: “O son of my mother! The people weakened me and almost killed me. Do not make my enemies gloat over me and do not consider me with the wrongdoing people” (7.150). He said: “My Lord! Forgive me and my brother and admit us into Your mercy; You are the most merciful of the merciful” (7.151). Those who took the calf [as a god] shall have wrath from their Lord and humiliation in the life of this world, and so do We reward the forgers (7.152). As for those who commit evil things then repent after that and believe, Your Lord will be to them, after that, forgiving, merciful (7.153). When Moses’ anger calmed down, he took the Tablets, in the inscription of which there are guidance and mercy for those who fear their Lord (7.154). Moses chose from his people seventy for our appointment. When the earthquake overtook them he said: “My Lord! Had you willed, you could have killed them and me before. Would You kill us for what the fools among us have done? This is not but Your trial with which You send astray whom You will and guide whom You will. You are our guardian, so forgive us and show mercy to us, and You are the best of forgivers (7.155). Write down for us good in this world and in the hereafter. We have repented to You.” He said: “I will strike with My torment whom I will, and My mercy embraces everything, so I shall write it down for those who are pious, give alms, and believe in Our signs” (7.156).
From Moses’ people there is a nation who guide by the truth and measure with it (7.159). We divided them into twelve tribes — nations. We inspired Moses when his people asked him for drink: “Strike the rock with your staff,” so twelve springs burst forth. Every people knew their drinking place. We overshadowed them with the clouds and sent down on them the manna and the quails, [saying]: “Eat of the good things We have given you.” They did not wrong Us but they were wronging themselves (7.160). When it was said to them: “Live in this town and eat from wherever you like. Say ‘hittatun’ and enter the gate prostrating so that We forgive your sins and give increase to the good-doers” (7.161). The wrongdoers among them then changed what had been said to them with another saying, so We sent down on them a punishment from heaven because of their wrongdoing (7.162). Ask them about the town on the sea when they transgressed during the Sabbath, as their fish would come to them on the day when they observe the Sabbath, appearing openly, and on the day they do not observe the Sabbath they would not come. So We tested them because of their rebellion (7.163). When a group from them said: “Why do you admonish a people whom Allah will destroy or punish severely?” They said: “For our own excuse with your Lord, and that they may become pious to Allah” (7.164). When they forgot what they had been reminded of we saved those who forbade evil and we overtook those who did wrong with a severe torment because of their rebellion (7.165). But when they arrogantly persisted in that which they were forbidden We said to them: “Be despised apes” (7.166). 



Translation by Louay Fatoohi and Shetha Al-Dargazelli 2008

Nov 202008

This is the “Preface” to the book The Mystery of Israel in Ancient Egypt: The Exodus in the Qur’an, the Old Testament, Archaeological Finds, and Historical Sources

This is a rewrite of our book History Testifies to the Infallibility of the Qur’an: Early History of the Children of Israelwhose first edition came out 10 years ago and which has been translated into Arabic and Indonesian. The rework is so substantial that we had to call it a new book rather than a new edition of the earlier work.

We decided to rewrite the original book because we felt that it needed a number of improvements. First, feedback on the first book indicated that it was not easy to read. Some informed readers had to read the book twice to fully understand it. Clearly, it was not reader friendly. One major reason was the way the book was structured.

Second, the original book covered some topics that were not completely needed for a book that focused on the exodus. While those topics remain as interesting as they were, they are not as relevant to the subject of Israel in ancient Egypt, so we removed them from this book. For instance, the first book covered aspects of Jesus’ story that have some subtle links to elements of the story of the exodus. These have now been covered far more comprehensively by one of us in a book that focuses on Jesus: The Mystery of the Historical Jesus: The Messiah in the Qur’an, the Bible, and Historical Sources.

Third, the text itself was also at times not easy to read, so we also focused on improving the language and readability of the text.

These changes have meant that the new book has almost a completely different structure. However, not everything has changed. The main arguments and conclusions of the book remain the same. Some sections of the new book still look similar to the corresponding sections in the older book, but even in these cases the text had to be substantially edited and improved. We believe that the new book is much better written, considerably easier and enjoyable to read, and completely accessible to the general reader.

We have also decided this time not to include the Arabic text of the Qur’anic verses. While the inclusion of the Arabic text was not an issue for the earlier book, most of the target readership of the book do not read Arabic and would find the text redundant. Furthermore, those who can read Arabic can easily check the Arabic origin of the translated Qur’anic verses should they wish to use a paper or electronic copy of the Qur’an.

This is why we have rewritten the book. But why did we write the original book in the first place?

Not many events in history have captured the imagination of the layperson and the scholar as much as the exodus. The scholarly interest in the history of Israel in ancient Egypt, in general, and the exodus, in particular, has triggered an enormous amount of research by historians, Biblicists, and archaeologists. Researchers have desperately clung to a shred of pottery unearthed from an ancient site or argued the reading or translation of a few hardly legible words from an ancient inscription to prove a point or another.

This interest of scholars in extra-Biblical data in the form of archaeological finds and ancient scriptural sources is in total contrast to their persistent neglect of the Qur’an. It is true that the Qur’an is not a traditional historical book like the Bible and that it gives only very brief information on ancient history of the Israelites. But the information it contains is significant in terms of both quality and quantity.

This attitude toward the Qur’an underlines two different assumptions. First, the Bible represents a perfectly or largely true account of history, so any book that contradicts or challenges it, as the Qur’an does, cannot be reliable. This is an assumption of faith, but it is one that influences many. Second, the Qur’an has unfaithfully copied much of its material from the Bible and other Jewish and Christian sources. This makes the Qur’an not an original, let alone credible, source of information. This view of the Qur’an is as old as the Qur’an itself. It was first held by Jews and Christians at the time of its revelation, and it remains faithfully subscribed to 14 centuries later.

It is true that a cursory look at the Qur’an would reveal similarities with the Bible. But the Qur’an implies that since Jewish writings, such as the Bible, are partly based on revealed scriptures and given that the Qur’an is revealed by the same and one God, these similarities are only to be expected. Additionally, these similarities are very limited and the differences between the Qur’an and the Bible are much greater in number and details. This general statement applies to the Qur’anic account and its Biblical counterpart of the history of Israel.

The right approach to assessing history in the Qur’an is to investigate it carefully and thoroughly and give it at least a small fraction of the time and energy that has been generously allocated to the Bible. If those interested in the historicity of the exodus had done so, they would have found a picture that is, unlike the Bible’s, internally consistent and in line with external evidence. The Qur’an does not contradict itself, and it is free of those Biblical claims, or any other claims, that fly in the face of external evidence. Furthermore, the Qur’an reveals a number of facts about the exodus that lead to an unambiguous identification of Pharaoh.

We wanted to write a book that demonstrates that keeping the Qur’an completely out of the research into the exodus was unjustifiable. Muslims in particular would also be interested in this book’s attempt to show that the accuracy of the Qur’an confirms its claim to divine origin and inerrancy. This is why we wrote this book.

When we published the first book, we hoped that it would create interest in the Qur’anic account of the history of Israel in ancient Egypt. We firmly believe that we made a strong case for further contributions to this subject and to the study of other parts and aspects of the Qur’anic text. Unfortunately, but also unsurprisingly, this has not happened yet. We still believe that this dismissive attitude toward the Qur’an will change, and our publication of this book is a confirmation of this belief.

We would like to thank our close friend Tariq Chaudhry whose comments on an earlier draft of the book helped us improve it considerably.


Copyright © 2008 Louay Fatoohi and Shetha Al-Dargazelli
All Rights Reserved

Nov 202008

This is the “Introduction” to the book The Mystery of Israel in Ancient Egypt: The Exodus in the Qur’an, the Old Testament, Archaeological Finds, and Historical Sources

The sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt and their subsequent exodus and settlement in Palestine have been among the most celebrated events of Biblical times. History, as related in the Bible, is very much the history of the Israelites who are portrayed as the “chosen people” of God and the center of His plans. It is just natural, then, to find that such eminence has been given to the sojourn, exodus, and settlement as these events represent the birth of the nation of Israel.

Not only Jewish and Christian lay believers have shown exceptional interest in the sojourn, exodus, and settlement. Scholars have been investigating every aspect of each of these episodes of the history of the Israelites. Thousands of popular and academic books and articles have been and are still being published and many scholarly lectures, seminars, and conferences have been organized to address every detail of these events. The scholarly interest in these triangular events may be divided into theological and historical. It is the historical aspect of these events that concerns us in this book.

While theologians are interested in the religious significance and implications of the sojourn, exodus, and settlement, historians’ main concern is the historical value of these incidents. The question for the historian is not what these events meant in religious terms but rather whether they occurred at all and if so whether they occurred as the Bible describes them. Ultimately, historical research into the sojourn, exodus, and settlement has significant implications for the theology of these episodes.

The investigation of the historicity of the sojourn, exodus, and settlement was boosted from the late 19th century by the growing amount of information unearthed by archaeological excavations in Egypt, Palestine, and Jordan, in particular, and the Near East, in general. Historians needed no more to rely only on the Bible and other ancient Jewish sources as their only sources. Scholars interested in the historicity of Biblical events finally have in archaeological finds independent sources. The Biblical account, thus, started to be examined in the light of the new data. In the eyes of many, a totally new field of research has thus developed: “Biblical archaeology.”

We will be examining the Biblical account and archaeological finds. But this book’s main new contribution to the literature is its detailed investigation of the Qur’anic story of the exodus and its demonstration of the harmony of this account with external evidence. This book is a modest attempt to create what might be called “Qur’anic archaeology.”

This book does not follow the trend common among scholars of trying to rationalize miracles and present them as normal events to convince the disbeliever and the skeptic reader that they did occur. It rather focuses on determining the historical contexts within which miracles took place. It is true that history consists, largely, of normal and natural events, but miracles also have influentially contributed to what history came to be and they will continue to do so. The crossing of the sea was one of those miracles without which the history of the world would have been totally different.

We need to explain some of the stylistic choices in the book. Each Qur’anic verse has been followed by a combination of two numbers identifying its sura or “chapter” and its position in that chapter. For instance, the combination 28.3 refers to the 3rd verse of the 28th chapter.

We have consulted some English translations of the Qur’an, but the translations used are ours. We always use our own translations of the Qur’an because translation is an act of interpretation, reflecting the translator’s understanding of the text.

Square brackets have been used to enclose explanatory texts that are needed to clarify the translation. Alternative texts, such as the English meaning of a term that is cited in its Arabic origin, are enclosed in round brackets.

A number of different printing styles are used in the book. A special font has been used for the Qur’anic text and another for Biblical passages. Roman transliterations of Arabic terms are in italics.

Let’s now take a quick look at the contents of the book. Chapter 1 presents the story of Joseph’s entry into Egypt in the Bible and the Qur’an. It then discusses some of the problems in the Biblical account.

In Chapter 2 we first explain why the absence of any mention of Joseph and Moses in ancient non-scriptural sources has no implication for the historicity of these characters and their stories. The chapter then uses the Bible, the Qur’an, and information from archaeological finds and historical sources to date the entry of the early Israelites into Egypt and identify the area where they lived. We also discuss the nature of the high position that Joseph held.

The story of Moses, and thus the exodus, according to the Bible is summarized in Chapter 3. This chapter also discusses problems in the Biblical account. These consist of discrepant passages, unrealistic claims, and statements that contradict established facts.

Chapter 4 first reviews the Qur’anic story of Moses. It then discusses a number of Biblical claims that are not supported by the Qur’an.

In Chapter 5, references in the Biblical account of the exodus that can be used, with the help of archaeological findings, to date that event are examined. The chapter also considers Biblical inconsistencies and discusses which references are more likely to be accurate.

Identifying Pharaoh according to the Qur’an is the focus of Chapter 6. The Qur’an contains information that allows us to identify this Pharaoh unambiguously.

Chapter 7 then studies in detail an important character in the Qur’anic story of the exodus called Hāmān. A Persian Hāmān is also mentioned in the Bible, but the chapter shows that the Egyptian Hāmān was historical whereas the Biblical Hāmān is unhistorical and the result of changing the story of the original Hāmān in the editorial work that the Biblical text went through over the centuries.

How Moses prepared the Israelites for the exodus and how they left Egypt are the subjects of Chapter 8.

In Chapter 9, the limited information in the Qur’an about Moses and the Israelites after the exodus is covered. The chapter also examines the earliest mention of the Israelites in an ancient record and its ramifications for the exodus.

Chapter 10 examines the Biblical and Qur’anic stories of Pharaoh’s massacre of Israelites infant males at the time of Moses’ birth. It also discusses the Qur’anic statement that Pharaoh ordered a second massacre of Israelites males after Moses’ return to Egypt. The chapter concludes with a critical study of a misleading approach that reduces many historical stories, scriptural and non-scriptural, to motif works.

In Chapter 11, we discuss the various names given to the Israelites in the Bible and the Qur’an. We show how the Biblical term “Hebrew” is a misnomer that was used by the Biblical authors for a certain purpose. We also discuss the different etymologies that the Qur’an and the Bible give to the term “Jew.”

Chapter 12 summarizes the findings of this book, telling the story of the exodus using the Qur’an and archaeological and historical sources.

The book has two appendices for reference. Appendix A compiles the longest accounts of Moses’ story from various Qur’anic chapters.

Appendix B lists the Kingdoms of ancient Egypt. It gives a chronology for all Periods and the Dynasties that are more relevant to the book. It also contains a listing of all Pharaohs of the 19th Dynasty, which is when the exodus took place.

For the reader’s convenience, the book has three indexes for Qur’anic verses, Biblical passages, and general names and subjects.



Copyright © 2008 Louay Fatoohi and Shetha Al-Dargazelli
All Rights Reserved